Now, for the entirety of chapter 48 – all 47 verses of it! – we have God’s message of judgement for Moab.
We’re given an introduction to this message at the beginning of verse 1.
48:1 ¶ Against Moab thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel;
Now, Moab was the country on the south-east side of the Dead Sea. When Israel came up from Egypt they passed through Moab. But God didn’t allow them to attack that nation.
Genesis 19 tells us that Moab was the result of an incestuous relationship between Lot – who was Abraham’s nephew – and Lot’s oldest daughter. As awful as the truth is, both she and her younger sister had children “by their father” – or in Hebrew “me aviy nu” (מֵאָבִ֖ינוּ). And that’s perhaps how Moab got his name – in Hebrew “mow av” (מוֹאָ֑ב).
At any rate, this nation – that was known by the name of their ancestor Moab – started off being obedient to Babylon. As recent as 598 BC they sent bands of men to harass Jehoiakim on Babylon’s behest. But then about 4 years later in 594 BC we see emissaries from Moab visiting Zedekiah king of Judah when plans for revolt against Babylon were being discussed – according to Jeremiah 27:3.
So, at some point, Moab went from obedience to Babylon to rebellion. And whatever the time frame for that happening – the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus tells us that Babylon conquered Moab in 582 BC.
But before any of that happened, God was going to predict that he was sending Babylon to destroy Moab.
Doom for Northern Cities (48:1b-2)
And because that was the case, Babylon would of course be coming from the north. That’s why we see in verses 1 and 2 doom pronounced for a few of the cities in the north of Moab.
[Woe unto/Sure to be judged is] Nebo!
[for/indeed] it [is/will be] [spoiled/laid waste/destroyed]:
Kiriathaim [is/will] [confounded/put to shame/suffer disgrace] and [taken/captured]:
[Misgab/Its fortress] [is/will] [confounded/put to shame/suffer disgrace] and [dismayed/broken down/be torn down].
Both of these cities – Nebo and Kiriathaim – are north of the Arnon River – which is about half way up the Dead Sea on the east side. These two cities north of the Arnon were in an area that originally belonged to Moab. But then Sihon took it from Moab. And finally it was conquered by Israel and given to the tribe of Reuben. Israel ended up losing possession of this land as they kept growing weaker and so at this point it’s very likely that Moab regained possession of these cities and this land north of the Arnon.
2 There shall be no more [praise/renown] of Moab:
in Heshbon they [have devised/planned] [evil/disaster] against it;
[Saying…] [“] come, and let us [cut it off from being a/put an end to that] nation. [”]
Now, Heshbon is another one of these cities in the north of Moab. It – like the other two cities mentioned before — used to belong to Moab. But Heshbon was actually taken by Sihon to be his capital according to Numbers 21:26-30. Then when Israel came in to the land they assigned Heshbon to Reuben. And then they lost it and finally Moab was in possession of it once more.
Doom for Southern Cities (48:2b-5)
So, the destruction that would start in those northern cities would not stop there. The destruction – according to verses 2 through 5 would spread down into the southern cities of Moab.
Also thou shalt be [cut down/brought to silence/destroyed], O [City of…] Madmen [מַדְמֵ֣ן];
[the sword/a destructive army] [shall pursue/will march against] thee.
3 [A voice of crying/Cries of anguish] shall be from Horonaim,
[“] [spoiling/desolation/oh, the ruin] and great destruction. [”]
4 Moab [is destroyed/will be crushed];
her little ones [have caused a cry to be heard/have made a cry/will cry out in distress].
5 For [in the going up/at the ascent] of Luhith [continual weeping shall go up/they go up weeping];
for [in the going down/at the descent] of Horonaim [the enemies/they] [have heard/will hear] [a cry of destruction/the distressed cry/the cries of distress].
Now, we don’t know exactly where Horonaim and Luhith were located from archaeology. But Isaiah 15:5 associates these two cities with a city called Zoar. Zoar was in southern Moab – at the southern tip of the Dead Sea. It’s where Lot and his daughters fled from the destruction of Sodom. Since that’s the case these other two cities were probably also in the south of Moab.
Flee Before Defeat Comes to gods and Kings (48:6-7)
Now, in light of this destruction that will start in the north and work its way down south, Moab is urged to flee before defeat comes to both their kings and their false god. We see this alert issued in verses 6 and 7.
6 [They will hear…] [Flee/Run], save [your lives/yourselves!],
[and/even if you must] be like [the/a lonely] [heath/juniper/shrub] in the [wilderness/desert].
7 For because thou [Moab…] hast trusted in [thy works/the things you do] and in thy [treasures/riches],
thou shalt also be [taken/conquered]:
And [your god…] Chemosh (כְמוֹשׁ) shall go forth into [captivity/exile]
with his priests and his [princes/officials] together.
Now, Chemosh (כְמוֹשׁ) was the god of Moab. Part of his worship involved child sacrifice. Solomon introduced his worship into Israel and Josiah was the one to finally snuff it out.
But not only would this false god be eradicated from Israel, but he would be exiled from his home nation of Moab. We’ve already seen God promise in chapter 43 that Egypt’s gods would be carried off into exile. So this seemed to be a regular practice of victorious armies of those days – to carry off the patron gods of the lands they conquered.
No Town Spared (48:8)
Now, when this defeat came for Moab, no town would be spared. That’s what God says in verse 8.
8 And the [spoiler/destroyer] shall come [upon/against] every [city/town],
and no city shall escape:
the [towns in the…] valley also shall [perish/be destroyed],
and the [cities on the high…] plain shall be [destroyed/laid waste],
as the LORD hath spoken.
Flight for Moab (48:9)
And because no town would be spared the effects of the Babylonian invasion, the Lord commands an unknown character to give wings to Moab so it can flee in verse 9.
9 [Give wings unto/Set up a gravestone for] Moab,
[that/for] it [may/will certainly] [flee and get away/fly away/be laid in ruins]:
for the cities thereof shall be desolate,
without any to dwell therein.
Curse for Slackness (48:10)
And God is so intent on destroying Moab with its detestable idol Chemosh that he issues a curse to any Babylonian who doesn’t destroy Moab with the utmost zeal and violence in verse 10.
10 ¶ Cursed be he that doeth the work of the LORD [deceitfully/with slackness/with laxness],
and cursed be he that keepeth back his sword from [blood/bloodshed/carrying out his destruction].
Moab Like Wine (48:11-12)
Next in verses 11 and 12 the Lord compares Moab to old wine whose dregs have settled to the bottom.
11 Moab hath [been at ease/lived undisturbed] from [his youth/its earliest days],
and [he/its people] [hath settled/are like wine allowed to settle undisturbed] on [his/its] [lees/dregs],
and hath not been [emptied/poured out] from [vessel/one jar] to [vessel/another],
neither hath he gone into [captivity/exile]:
therefore his taste remained [the same…] in him,
and his scent is not changed.
And for those of us who don’t know much about wine production – which I trust is most of us – the picture painted here is that Moab had never been exiled and therefore was complacent and had never changed his evil ways.
Continuing the wine motif…
12 ¶ Therefore, behold, the days [come/are coming], [saith/declares/affirms] the LORD, that I will send unto him [wanderers/pourers/ones who will empty out Moab], that shall [cause him to wander/pour him], and shall empty his [vessels/towns of their people], and break their [bottles/jars in pieces/towns].
Moab Ashamed of Idol (48:13)
And when these pourers come to pour out the old sediment-filled bottle of wine that Moab had become – that is to say, by exiling them – then Moab would finally be ashamed of their awful idol Chemosh according to verse 13.
13 And Moab shall be [ashamed of/disappointed by their god] Chemosh,
as the house of Israel was [ashamed/disappointed] of [the calf god at…] Bethel [their confidence/which they trusted].
So, Moab would be ashamed of Chemosh when Babylon came to destroy them. They discovered that their false god was unable to deliver them. In fact, the God of Israel whom they had been rejecting for so long was right all along. And when they were being exiled they would see that.
Moab’s Weak Warriors (48:14-15)
And not only would Moab’s idol be seen as weak as it truly was – but also the weakness of the Moabite warriors would be abundantly evident when Babylon came to destroy them. Verses 14 and 15.
14 How say ye [men of Moab…],
We are [mighty/heroes] and [strong/mighty] men [for the/of/in] [war/battle]?
15 Moab [is spoiled/will be destroyed], and gone up out of her cities,
and his [chosen/choicest/finest] young men are gone down to the slaughter,
saith the King, whose name is the LORD of hosts.
Moab’s Swift Destruction (48:16)
And with otherwise strong warriors made weak, Moab’s destruction would be swift according to verse 16.
16 The [calamity/destruction] of Moab is near [to come/at hand],
and his [affliction/disaster] [hasteth/will come on] [fast/swiftly/quickly].
Call to Moab’s Neighbors (48:17)
So, with Moab’s swift destruction in view, God calls out to all his neighbors – who benefited from him – to take note of his destruction and lament. Verse 17.
17 All ye that [are/live] [about/around] him [Moab…], [bemoan/grieve for/mourn for] him;
and all ye that know his [name/fame], say,
[How/Alas!] is the [strong/mighty] [staff/scepter] broken,
and the [beautiful/glorious] [rod/staff]!
In the context it seems like the staff and rod spoken of here is referring to Moab’s support of those neighbors around him that had come to rely on Moab’s help. That’s why these nations are pictured as crying out and mourning Moab’s destruction – because Moab helped them.
Proud Humbled (48:18)
Verse 18 continues by stating that the proud people of Moab would be humbled when Babylon finally exiled them.
18 [Thou daughter that dost inhabit/O inhabitant of/You who live in] Dibon,
come down from thy [glory/place of honor], and sit [in/on] [thirst/the dry ground];
This city known as Dibon was on what’s called the “King’s Highway.” That’s the road that goes north-south in the east side of the Dead Sea. It still exists today, actually. And I was on it!
for the [spoiler/destroyer] of Moab shall [come upon/come up against/attack] thee,
and he shall destroy thy [strong holds/fortifications].
The News Spreads (48:19-20)
And we see in verses 19 and 20 that news of Moab’s destruction will spread.
19 O inhabitant of Aroer,
stand by the [way/road], and [espy/watch];
[ask/question] [him/the man] [that/who] fleeth,
and [her/the woman] that escapeth,
What [is/has] [done/happened]?
20 [They will answer – Here’s where the news is spreading…] Moab is [confounded/put to shame/disgraced];
for it is [broken down/broken/fallen]:
[howl/wail] and [cry/cry out in mourning];
[tell ye it/announce] [in/beside the/along the] Arnon [River…],
that Moab [is/has been] [spoiled/laid waste/destroyed],
Judgement Upon All the Cities | 21-24
Verses 21-24 foretell judgement upon all the cities of Moab.
KJV Jeremiah 48:21 ¶ And judgment [is/will/has] come upon the [cities of the…] [plain country/high plain];
and upon Jahazah,
and upon Mephaath,
22 And upon Dibon,
and upon Nebo,
and upon Beth[-]diblathaim,
23 And upon Kiriathaim,
and upon Beth[-]gamul,
and upon Beth[-]meon,
24 And upon Kerioth,
and upon Bozrah,
and upon all the cities of the land of Moab, far or near.
And sometimes the order in which the Lord lists these cities that he’s denouncing is significant because it follows some sort of linear geographical pattern. Usually in that case they’d go from north to south.
But in this case with these 11 city names the significance is in the fact that their order is totally scattered. If you try to follow these city names on a map as you’re reading you’ll see that they’re all over the place within the borders of Moab.
And I think that’s the point. Like the last phrase of verse 24 says – “all the cities” – “far or near.” In other words, it doesn’t matter where these cities are. They’re all in for God’s judgement.
Moab’s Power Destroyed | 25
And with all of these cities being the target of God’s destruction through the nation of Babylon, Moab’s power will be destroyed, according to verse 25.
25 The [horn/mighty] of Moab [is cut off/will be crushed],
and [his arm/its power] is broken,
[saith/declares/affirms] the LORD.
In the Scripture, horns and arms are often figurative of power. And that’s the case here in this verse as well. The power of Moab – his horn, his arm – will be destroyed.
Contemptible Drunkenness as a Punishment | 26
And God goes on in verse 26 to picture this destruction of Moab’s power as if Moab were a contemptible drunk person.
26 ¶ Make ye him drunken [with the wine of my wrath…]:
for he [magnified himself/vaunted himself/has become arrogant] against the [Me…] LORD:
[With the following result…] Moab also shall [wallow/splash around] in his vomit,
and he also shall be [in derision/a laughingstock].
So, Moab will drink from the cup of God’s wrath with the result that they will be like a drunk. Out of control, helpless, contemptible.
Moab’s Past Contempt for Israel | 27
Contemptible… Sort of like the contempt that the nation of Moab had for Israel so many years previous to this time when Israel was sent into Exile. That contempt of Moab for their neighbor Israel is what God reminds them of in verse 27.
27 For was not Israel a [derision/laughingstock] unto thee [Moab…]?
was he found [by you…] [among/to be nothing but] thieves?
for [since/every time] thou spakest of him,
thou [skippedst for joy/shake your head in contempt and scorn].
What goes around comes around. When Israel was going through their chastening Moab was full of scorn and contempt for them.
But now it’s Moab’s turn to suffer punishment. And just as they scorned Israel and held that nation in contempt, so too now they would be contemptible in the eyes of other nations.
Moab to Flee Like a Dove | 28
And since destruction is coming to Moab, they are encouraged to flee like a dove in verse 28.
28 O ye that dwell in Moab, leave the cities, and dwell [in/among] the [rock/cliffs/crags],
and be like the dove that maketh her nest in the sides of [the hole’s mouth/a ravine/the mouth of the chasm].
The point of the simile is inaccessibility. Make yourself inaccessible, Moab! Because Babylon is coming!
Proud Idle Wrath | 29-30
As we continue, verses 29 and 30 reveal to us one reason that God was going to judge and punish Moab. It’s their proud but idle wrath.
29 [We/I, the Lord] have heard the pride of Moab, (he is exceeding proud)
and his arrogancy,
and his pride,
and the haughtiness of his heart.
30 I know his [wrath/fury], saith the LORD; but it [shall not be so/is futile];
his [lies/idle boastings] shall [not so effect it/prove to be false/accomplish nothing].
So, Moab’s proud wrath would prove to be idle when God’s appointed punisher would come and exile them.
Mourning for Moab | 31-33
And now, something happens that we might not expect. God – who is bringing this punishment to Moab – now gives a mournful lament for Moab in verses 31-33.
And two aspects of Moab are mourned for in those verses. First for the humans. And then for the produce of the land.
For People | 31
Verse 31 is where the Lord laments for the people of Moab.
31 Therefore will I [howl/weep with sorrow/wail] for Moab,
and I will cry out [in sadness…] for all Moab;
mine heart shall [mourn/moan] for the men of Kir[-]heres.
So, the same all-powerful and sovereign being who is bringing the punishment on Moab is also grieving because of their destruction. He’s punishing, but he’s also lamenting.
Would we expect anything else from the God who created a good world with good people – which was then marred by the sin of those people — which called for him to curse that formerly-good world with the formerly good people?
God will punish. But we shouldn’t be surprised when he grieves for having to punish. It’s like Jesus who lamented over Jerusalem – precisely because he was going to have to send punishment to them for rejecting him as their Messiah.
So, God grieves over having to punish Moab – especially their people.
For Produce | 32-33
And then verses 32 and 33 is where the Lord laments for the produce of Moab.
32 O [vine/grapevines] of Sibmah [northeast point of the Dead Sea, Mt. Pisgah…], I will weep for thee [with the weeping of Jazer/like town of Jazer weeps over them] [Jazer – northeast of Sibmah…]:
[thy plants/their branches/your tendrils] [are gone/once spread/stretched] [over/as far as/across] the [Dead…] sea [to the west…], they [reach/reached] even [to/as far as] the [sea/town] of Jazer [northeast…]:
The branches are pictured as spreading far to the west and to the north. Perhaps this is as far as those grapes or the wine produced by them traveled. The point is then that the produce of Sibmah was enjoyed by many throughout Moab.
But that was going to change when Babylon came…
the [spoiler/destroyer/Babylon] [is fallen upon/will ravage] thy [summer fruits/figs, dates,]
and upon thy [vintage/grape crop].
33 And joy and gladness [is taken/will disappear] from the [plentiful/fruitful] [field/land], [and from the land of/that is] Moab;
and I have caused wine to [fail/cease/cease flowing] from the winepresses: none shall tread with [joyful…] shouting; their [will be…] shouting [of soldiers…] [shall be no/not] shouting [of grape treaders…].
So, there we have God lamenting the produce of Moab.
He grieves for having to destroy both the people and the produce of Moab. And yet, punish he must.
News Spreads from North to South | 34
Now, in verse 34 we’ll see something similar to what we’ve seen before. God says that news of Moab’s destruction – while the destruction is in progress – will go from north to south.
34 ¶ From the [cry/outcry/cries of anguish] of Heshbon even unto Elealeh, and even unto Jahaz, have they [uttered/raised] their voice, [north…]
from Zoar even unto Horonaim, [as an/and to] [heifer of three years old/Eglath-shelishiyah]: [south…] for the waters [also/even] of Nimrim shall [be/become] [desolate/dried up].
The waters on Nimrim may have been a stream either in the north or south of Moab. Perhaps Babylon would have stopped up that stream when it came invading from the north in order to pass through on dry ground – in which case those waters of Nimrim would be in the north.
News of that would start where that occurred – in the north (Heshbon, Elealeh, Jahaz) and travel south as those people fled to Zoar, Horonaim, and Eglath-Shelishiyah.
Destruction for Moab and His Worship | 35
Then in verse 35, God wants to point to a particular element of Moab that he wished to destroy. He wanted to destroy their worship of false gods.
35 Moreover I will [cause to cease/make an end/put an end] [in/to] Moab,
[saith/declares/affirms] the LORD,
[to…] him that [offereth/makes offerings/offers sacrifice] [in/on/at] [the high places/her places of worship],
and him that burneth incense to his gods.
So, in addition to their pride, God is here pointing to Moab’s idolatry as a reason behind his punishing them.
More Mourning for Moab | 36-39
Next, in verses 36-39 there are three entities portrayed as mourning for Moab’s destruction – God (or perhaps Jeremiah), Moab itself, and then Moab’s neighboring nations, in that order.
From God/Jeremiah? | 36
First, God or Jeremiah mourns the destruction of Moab in verse 36.
36 Therefore mine heart [shall sound/moans] for Moab like [pipes/a flute playing a funeral song],
[and/yes] mine heart [shall sound/moans] like [pipes/a flute playing a funeral song] for the men of Kir[-]heres:
because the [riches/wealth/abundance] that he [hath gotten/it produced] [are perished/is lost].
Now, according to Isaiah 15:7, this “riches” (same word, found only in this passage and the one in Isaiah) were carried over a brook as the Moabites tried to escape Babylon. That’s at least one way in which Jeremiah here can say they “perished.”
So, that’s Jeremiah’s lament or perhaps God’s lament for Moab’s lost riches.
From Moab | 37-38
Then in verses 37 and 38 we have a lament for Moab from Moab itself.
37 ¶ For every head shall be bald [in mourning…],
and every beard [clipped/cut off] [to show their sorrow…]:
upon all the hands shall be [cuttings/gashes],
and upon the loins sackcloth.
38 There shall be lamentation [generally/everywhere] upon all the housetops of Moab,
and in the [streets/public squares] thereof:
for I have broken Moab like a [vessel/jar] [wherein is no pleasure/that is unwanted/undesirable],
[saith/affirms/declares] the LORD.
From Other Nations | 39
And then, verse 39 foretells of Moab’s neighbors lamenting Moab’s destruction.
39 They [Moab’s neighbors mentioned at the end of verse 39…] shall [howl/wail], saying,
How is it [broken down/shattered]!
how hath Moab [turned the back/turn away] [with/in] shame!
so shall Moab [be a derision/become a laughingstock/become and object of ridicule] and [a dismaying/an object of terror/terrifying sight] to all [them about/around/the nations that surround] him.
Babylon Coming | 40-42
And of course, these lamentable realities we’ve just read are a result of Babylon coming to destroy Moab. And so, we read of Babylon’s arrival in verses 40-42.
Like an Eagle | 40
Verse 40 tells us that Babylon would come like an eagle.
40 For thus saith the LORD;
[Behold/Look!], [he/a nation] shall fly [as/like] an eagle,
and shall [spread/out] his wings over Moab.
From Strength to Weakness | 41
And when the eagle of Babylon comes, Moab would go from strength to weakness, according to verse 41.
41 Kerioth is taken, and the [strong holds/fortresses] are [surprised/taken/seized],
and the mighty men’s hearts in Moab at that day shall be as the heart of a woman in [her pangs/labor].
We see here the contrast of strength and weakness. Strength before Babylon comes – strong holds, mighty men. Weakness when the enemy arrives – surprise, the emotions of a woman in labor.
Result: Utter Destruction | 42
And then verse 42 relates the result of Babylon’s coming – utter destruction because of their pride.
42 And Moab shall be destroyed from being a people,
because he hath [magnified himself/become arrogant] [against/toward] the LORD.
Inevitable Doom | 43-44
This doom is inevitable, according to verses 43 and 44.
43 [Fear/Terror], and the pit, and the snare, shall be upon thee, O inhabitant of Moab, [saith/affirms/declares] the LORD.
44 He that fleeth from the [fear/terror] shall fall into the pit;
and he that [getteth up/climbs] out of the pit shall be [taken/caught] in the [snare/trap]:
for I will bring upon it, even upon Moab,
the year of their [visitation/punishment], saith the LORD.
So, Moab won’t escape their doom. If they flee from fear they get the pit. If they escape the pit they get the snare. They won’t escape.
And it’s interesting to note that this kind of description is used elsewhere in Scripture to highlight the certainty of the destruction a people would face for whatever reason. You could almost say this kind of way of describing certain destruction was proverbial.
An Old Proverb Revisited | 45
Well, what’s even more interesting is that in verse 45 we have another proverb used. And this time, the proverb is really old, as we’ll see.
45 They that fled stood under the shadow [of the walls…] of Heshbon [because of the force/without strength/helpless]:
So, some Moabites as they were fleeing went and hid in Heshbon. But then this happened…
but a fire shall come forth out of Heshbon,
and a flame from the midst of [the former territory of the Amorite king…] Sihon,
and shall devour the [corner/forehead] of Moab,
and the [crown of the head/scalps] of the [tumultuous ones/riotous revelers/war-lovers/sons of noise].
Now, what might not be readily apparent is that most of verse 45 is a repetition of something that Moses wrote in the book of Numbers about 1,000 years before this incident.
We find the following statement in Numbers 21:25-30.
KJV Numbers 21:25 And Israel took all these cities: and Israel dwelt in all the cities of the Amorites, in Heshbon, and in all the villages thereof.
26 For Heshbon was the city of Sihon the king of the Amorites, who had fought against the former king of Moab, and taken all his land out of his hand, even unto Arnon.
27 Wherefore they that speak in proverbs say,
Come into Heshbon,
let the city of Sihon be built and prepared:
28 For there is a fire gone out of Heshbon,
a flame from the city of Sihon:
it hath consumed Ar of Moab,
and the lords of the high places of Arnon.
29 Woe to thee, Moab!
thou art undone, O people of Chemosh:
he hath given his sons that escaped,
and his daughters, into captivity unto Sihon king of the Amorites.
30 We have shot at them;
Heshbon is perished even unto Dibon,
and we have laid them waste even unto Nophah,
which reacheth unto Medeba.
So, this old proverb is revisited here in Jeremiah. In Numbers it apparently referred to the Amorites coming and taking Heshbon from the Moabites. But now in Jeremiah 48 it’s referring to – yes, another nation taking land from Moab – but this time that nation is Babylon rather than the Amorites.
Exile for Chemosh Worshippers | 46
Well, when that fire that is Babylon “goes out of Heshbon” and “consumes Moab” then, according to verse 46, those who worshipped the false god Chemosh would be exiled.
46 [Woe be unto thee/You are doomed], O Moab!
the people of Chemosh [perisheth/will be destroyed]:
for thy sons are taken captives,
and thy daughters captives.
And actually, you can see that this verse is repeating some of what that ancient proverb from Numbers 21 said.
Future Restoration for Moab | 47a
But here’s something not stated in Numbers 21. Verse 47 features God promising to restore Moab in the future.
47 Yet will I [bring again the captivity/restore the fortunes/reverse the ill fortune] of Moab in the latter days, saith the LORD.
It’s hard to tie this verse to historical events. Apparently, there may have been some return from exile for the Moabites perhaps around the time Judah was allowed to return to their land. And even now there are people living in the land of Moab. They’re called Jordanians.
Conclusion | 47b
Finally, the conclusion of this extended prophecy concerning Moab’s judgement at the hands of Babylon ends verse 47.
[Thus far/Ending here] is the judgment [of/against] Moab.
And as we close this lesson, let’s just very briefly look forward to what’s to come in this book.
Chapter 49 presents the foretold judgement on six different nations or cities.
Then chapters 50 and 51 are all about the judgement that God was going to bring to bear on Babylon.
And finally, chapter 52 is a rehashing of the final destruction of Judah and the fate of one of their exiled kings.