Angel of the Lord in the Bible

Angel of the Lord in the Bible

Angel of the Lord in the Bible
Explaining the Book of Zechariah

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Angel of the Lord in the Bible: Let’s turn our attention once more to the first chapter of the Old Testament book of Zechariah. Zechariah 1.

And we’ll be in the first vision of Zechariah which covers verses 7-17.

Now, last time, we studied verses 7-12. And we do need to get to verses 13-17 – but on the way there we met this kind of mysterious being that we’re going to take the whole time today to study throughout Scripture. See if you can identify him as we read the first six verses of Zechariah’s first vision in Zechariah 1:7-12.

Angel of the Lord in Zechariah 1

KJV Zechariah 1:7 ¶ Upon the four and twentieth day of the eleventh month, which is the month Sebat, in the second year of Darius, came the word of the LORD unto Zechariah, the son of Berechiah, the son of Iddo the prophet, saying,

 8 I saw by night, and behold a man riding upon a red horse, and he stood among the myrtle trees that were in the bottom; and behind him were there red horses, speckled, and white.

 9 Then said I, O my lord, what are these? And the angel that talked with me said unto me, I will shew thee what these be.

 10 And the man that stood among the myrtle trees answered and said, These are they whom the LORD hath sent to walk to and fro through the earth.

 11 And they answered the angel of the LORD that stood among the myrtle trees, and said, We have walked to and fro through the earth, and, behold, all the earth sitteth still, and is at rest.

 12 Then the angel of the LORD answered and said, O LORD of hosts, how long wilt thou not have mercy on Jerusalem and on the cities of Judah, against which thou hast had indignation these threescore and ten years?

And so, the being that we need to become better acquainted with is this one known in verses 11 and 12 as “the angel of the Lord” – מַלְאַךְ־יְהוָה – the man on the red horse among the myrtle trees.

This being is mentioned by name 58 times in the Old Testament.

But here, in Zechariah 1:11 and 12 we note a few things about this being.

First of all, he’s a man – at least that’s how he appears. That’s how Zechariah introduces him. He’s the man on the red horse in the middle of the myrtle trees.

And yet, at the same time, we’re told that this being is an angel. He’s some sort of ministering spirit that is higher than mankind for the time being.

And this angel/man is concerned for God’s people. Note his cry to the Lord. He’s concerned that the Lord not delay any longer showing mercy toward his people. And note also that it isn’t the people themselves begging for God’s mercy – at least, not that we’re told of. No – this angel of the Lord is interceding for God’s people to God himself.

And so, after verses 11 and 12 this angel of the Lord bows out of the scene. But we take away from this passage that this being takes the form of a man. He intercedes for God’s people according to God’s will. He is a mediator between God and man.

OK, what else about him? Let’s search the Scripture to discover more. Because there are still 56 more references to this being in the Old Testament!

Angel of the Lord in Zechariah 3

Let’s turn to Zechariah 3. We’ll read verses 1-7.

KJV Zechariah 3:1 ¶ And he shewed me Joshua the high priest standing before the angel of the LORD, and Satan standing at his right hand to resist him.

 2 And the LORD said unto Satan, The LORD rebuke thee, O Satan; even the LORD that hath chosen Jerusalem rebuke thee: is not this a brand plucked out of the fire?

 3 Now Joshua was clothed with filthy garments, and stood before the angel.

 4 And he answered and spake unto those that stood before him, saying, Take away the filthy garments from him. And unto him he said, Behold, I have caused thine iniquity to pass from thee, and I will clothe thee with change of raiment.

 5 And I said, Let them set a fair mitre upon his head. So they set a fair mitre upon his head, and clothed him with garments. And the angel of the LORD stood by.

 6 ¶ And the angel of the LORD protested unto Joshua, saying,

 7 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; If thou wilt walk in my ways, and if thou wilt keep my charge, then thou shalt also judge my house, and shalt also keep my courts, and I will give thee places to walk among these that stand by.

And he goes on from there and prophesies the coming of a man named Branch, whom we know to be Jesus the Messiah. But we’ll stop there for now and consider what we’ve just seen about the angel of the Lord.

To begin, we notice that Joshua is standing before this angel – and Satan is also standing there. In my mind, the angel of the Lord occupies a place that I would tend to assume God alone would assume – that of judge. It’s almost like a trial scene with the judge, the accused, and the accuser. And it’s not the Lord of Hosts who is at the front serving as judge. It’s this angel of the Lord. He seems to take on the position of divine sovereign here.

Notice also that there are three people introduced – Joshua, the angel of the Lord, and Satan in verse 1. But all of a sudden, the Lord is said to start speaking and rebuking Satan in verse 2. I think we could be forgiven if we start to get the idea that somehow the angel of the Lord is the Lord himself – otherwise, the Lord’s voice coming out of nowhere seems a little out of place. Could it be that somehow this angel of the Lord is actually the Lord himself?

Let’s also note that the angel of the Lord seems to take authoritative actions like we’d expect the Lord himself to do. This angel who is standing as judge of Joshua and who is rebuking Satan then directs various people standing around – which we didn’t know about beforehand – to do various things for Joshua to clean him up.

But the most authoritative action of all that the angel of the Lord takes is when he declares to Joshua, “I have caused thine iniquity to pass from thee” which is a clear reference to this being forgiving sins. And we’re left wondering with the Jews of old who witnessed Jesus’ miracles and declarations of sins forgiven “who is able to forgive sins but God alone?!” And yet, the angel of the Lord is apparently forgiving sins. And so, the question continues in our minds, is this angel of the Lord divine? Is he God?

And yet, the angel seems to be separate in some ways from God. After all, he gives a message in the name of the Lord of hosts. So, it’s not like these two individuals are the same person, as it were. There’s a distinction between the two. And yet, they seem to be as close as any two persons could be. Perhaps to the point of being the same being and yet two distinct persons. Is this sounding familiar?

Well, let’s do some more investigation into the remaining 53 references to this angel of the Lord.

Angel of the Lord in Genesis 16

Let’s go back to Genesis 16, which contains the first mention of the angel of the Lord that we have in Scripture.

In Genesis 16, we have a situation where Abraham’s barren wife Sarai gave her maid to Abraham to bear a child for him. That later caused Sarai to be angry and chase Hagar, the maid, away. Then we have this in Genesis 16:7-13.

KJV Genesis 16:7 ¶ And the angel of the LORD found [her/Hagar] by a fountain of water in the wilderness, by the fountain in the way to Shur.

 8 And he said, Hagar, Sarai’s maid, whence camest thou? and whither wilt thou go? And she said, I flee from the face of my mistress Sarai.

 9 And the angel of the LORD said unto her, Return to thy mistress, and submit thyself under her hands.

 10 And the angel of the LORD said unto her, I will multiply thy seed exceedingly, that it shall not be numbered for multitude.

 11 And the angel of the LORD said unto her, Behold, thou art with child, and shalt bear a son, and shalt call his name Ishmael; because the LORD hath heard thy affliction.

 12 And he will be a wild man; his hand will be against every man, and every man’s hand against him; and he shall dwell in the presence of all his brethren.

 13 And she called the name of the LORD that spake unto her, Thou God seest me: for she said, Have I also here looked after him that seeth me?

So, let’s consider a few facts about the angel of the Lord from this passage.

First, notice his compassion. And this compassion is toward the mother of Ishmael – the child of the bondwoman. The child who competed with the son of the promise – Isaac – and ultimately lost. This is not one of God’s nearest and dearest people. And yet, the angel of the Lord has compassion on her and on the unborn Ishmael by extension. The angel of the Lord seeks her out and finds her.

Then the angel of the Lord tells her that he will multiply her descendants. That would be an activity I would think is reserved for God alone to do. Which is another hint that this being is deity in some way. And yet, maybe he’s just speaking on behalf of the Lord of Hosts and is just a normal angel.

And you can think that way – that he’s just an angel – until the end of this passage in verse 13. Moses himself – whom God used to write the book of Genesis – he says that Hagar “called the name of the LORD that spake unto her, Thou God seest me.”

Who was speaking to Hagar? The passage tells us that the angel of the Lord spoke to her. But whom does Moses say spoke with Hagar? The Lord himself.

So, Moses admits that the angel of the Lord is himself the Lord.

Then, Hagar is recorded as calling the angel of the Lord “God.” And then she expresses amazement that she saw God and lived to tell the tale!

Now, again, whom did Hagar see? She saw the angel of the Lord. And she says that she saw God.

To see the angel of the Lord was to see the Lord himself. To hear him speak was to hear God. And my mind is brought to the passage in John 14:9 where Jesus tells his disciples, “…he that hath seen me hath seen the Father;…”

Do you see the similarities between the angel of the Lord and Jesus Christ? And there are 49 more references to the angel of the Lord who appears to be none other than a pre-New Testament appearance of Jesus the Messiah.

Angel of the Lord in Genesis 22

So, let’s move on to Genesis 22 where we’re next shown this being.

This is the situation where God had told Abraham to sacrifice his son Isaac. Abraham was about to do just that when all of a sudden…

KJV Genesis 22:11 And the angel of the LORD called unto him out of heaven, and said, Abraham, Abraham: and he said, Here am I.

 12 And he said, Lay not thine hand upon the lad, neither do thou any thing unto him: for now I know that thou fearest God, seeing thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only son from me.

 13 And Abraham lifted up his eyes, and looked, and behold behind him a ram caught in a thicket by his horns: and Abraham went and took the ram, and offered him up for a burnt offering in the stead of his son.

 14 And Abraham called the name of that place Jehovahjireh: as it is said to this day, In the mount of the LORD it shall be seen.

 15 ¶ And the angel of the LORD called unto Abraham out of heaven the second time, 16 And said, By myself have I sworn, saith the LORD, for because thou hast done this thing, and hast not withheld thy son, thine only son: 17 That in blessing I will bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed as the stars of the heaven, and as the sand which is upon the sea shore; and thy seed shall possess the gate of his enemies;

So, we have here the angel of the Lord and the Lord being shown to be two separate persons. The angel declares the words of the Lord just like one of my sons might declare to his brother the words of his dad. And obviously in that situation, my son and I are two separate persons.

And yet, then we see the angel of the Lord commending Abraham for not withholding his only son from “me.” Well, from whom was Abraham not withholding his son? From God. But from whom does the angel of the Lord commend Abraham for not withholding his son? From himself.

So, at one time we have a distinction of persons but apparently oneness in being.

And that reminds us of Jesus and how at one time you can have the scene at Jesus’ baptism where the Father speaks from heaven and the Son is on earth in the water. So, God the Father and God the Son are separate persons.

And yet, you have John 1:1 where John the evangelist tells us that the Word – the Logos – Jesus Christ – “was God.”

Separate persons, but one being? Yes – that’s Jesus Christ and God the Father.

And I’m convinced that that’s the case with the angel of the Lord and the Lord of Hosts. God the Son and God the Father. The angel of the Lord then is a preincarnate Jesus – an appearance of Jesus before the incarnation – before he was born of the virgin Mary. (47 left)

Angel of the Lord in Exodus 3

Another instance where this angel of the Lord appears in in Exodus 3. Let’s read verses 1-6.

KJV Exodus 3:1 ¶ Now Moses kept the flock of Jethro his father in law, the priest of Midian: and he led the flock to the backside of the desert, and came to the mountain of God, even to Horeb.

 2 And the angel of the LORD appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush: and he looked, and, behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed.

 3 And Moses said, I will now turn aside, and see this great sight, why the bush is not burnt.

 4 And when the LORD saw that he turned aside to see, God called unto him out of the midst of the bush, and said, Moses, Moses. And he said, Here am I.

 5 And he said, Draw not nigh hither: put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground.

 6 Moreover he said, I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. And Moses hid his face; for he was afraid to look upon God.

So, who is in the bush? The angel of the Lord, according to verse 2.

But who calls to Moses from the bush? God does, according to verse 4.

And of whom is Moses afraid to look at in the bush? Moses is afraid to look at God who is in the bush, according to verse 6.

So, the angel of the Lord in verse 2 is then identified in verses 4 and 6 as God. (46 left)

Angel of the Lord in Numbers 22

The angel of the Lord appears to Balaam and his donkey in Numbers 22 and is mentioned by name 10 times there. And we won’t read it for sake of time, but Numbers 22 is another passage that emphasizes more of the separateness of the angel of the Lord and the Lord of hosts. (36 left)

Angel of the Lord in the Book of Judges

And then we get to the book of Judges in which we find 19 out of the 58 times that this being appears in the entire Bible. So, one-third of the times that the angel of the Lord is mentioned in the Old Testament, he’s found in the book of Judges. (17 left)

Angel of the Lord in Judges 2

The angel of the Lord comes to the people of Israel in the time of the Judges and announces that he’s not going to drive out the inhabitants of the land from before them anymore because they didn’t obey him. Catch that – whom did Israel not obey – as we see from Scripture? They disobeyed God and his covenant with him. And yet, whom does the Angel of the Lord say they disobeyed? The angel of the Lord himself. Another testimony to the deity of the angel of the Lord.

Angel of the Lord with Gideon

Later on, the Angel of the Lord speaks to Gideon in Judges 6 verses 11-24.

KJV Judges 6:11 ¶ And there came an angel of the LORD, and sat under an oak which was in Ophrah, that pertained unto Joash the Abiezrite: and his son Gideon threshed wheat by the winepress, to hide it from the Midianites.

 12 And the angel of the LORD appeared unto him, and said unto him, The LORD is with thee, thou mighty man of valour.

 13 And Gideon said unto him, Oh my Lord, if the LORD be with us, why then is all this befallen us? and where be all his miracles which our fathers told us of, saying, Did not the LORD bring us up from Egypt? but now the LORD hath forsaken us, and delivered us into the hands of the Midianites.

 14 And the LORD looked upon him, and said, Go in this thy might, and thou shalt save Israel from the hand of the Midianites: have not I sent thee?

 15 And he said unto him, Oh my Lord, wherewith shall I save Israel? behold, my family is poor in Manasseh, and I am the least in my father’s house.

 16 And the LORD said unto him, Surely I will be with thee, and thou shalt smite the Midianites as one man.

 17 And he said unto him, If now I have found grace in thy sight, then shew me a sign that thou talkest with me.

 18 Depart not hence, I pray thee, until I come unto thee, and bring forth my present, and set it before thee. And he said, I will tarry until thou come again.

 19 ¶ And Gideon went in, and made ready a kid, and unleavened cakes of an ephah of flour: the flesh he put in a basket, and he put the broth in a pot, and brought it out unto him under the oak, and presented it.

 20 And the angel of God said unto him, Take the flesh and the unleavened cakes, and lay them upon this rock, and pour out the broth. And he did so.

 21 Then the angel of the LORD put forth the end of the staff that was in his hand, and touched the flesh and the unleavened cakes; and there rose up fire out of the rock, and consumed the flesh and the unleavened cakes. Then the angel of the LORD departed out of his sight.

 22 And when Gideon perceived that he was an angel of the LORD, Gideon said, Alas, O Lord GOD! for because I have seen an angel of the LORD face to face.

 23 And the LORD said unto him, Peace be unto thee; fear not: thou shalt not die.

 24 Then Gideon built an altar there unto the LORD, and called it Jehovahshalom: unto this day it is yet in Ophrah of the Abiezrites.

So, here I think we have a clear distinction between the angel of the Lord and the Lord of hosts. The angel and Gideon speak of the Lord as if he’s a separate person in verses 12 and 13.

But then in verse 14 we have the Lord looking at Gideon and then speaking to him in response to the conversation that the angel was having with Gideon. Surely, that’s the angel of the Lord looking at and speaking to Gideon – and yet, we’re told that the Lord did those things.

Then Gideon responds to the angel presumably in verse 15. And in response, we’re told again that the Lord gives Gideon assurance in verse 16 of his personal presence with Gideon.

And then it seems like finally in verse 17 that Gideon gets that this angel that he’s speaking with is the Lord himself. Why else would you ask for a sign that the person who is speaking with you… is actually speaking with you?! Additionally, Gideon seeks to sacrifice to this angel of the Lord – whom he understands now to be the Lord himself in verse 18.

And then Gideon ended this section expressing concern that he might die because he saw the angel of the Lord’s face – which is a level of concern typically reserved for seeing God’s face. But the Lord responds to Gideon’s concerns with comfort.

Angel of the Lord with Samson’s Parents

After that, this being appears to Samson’s parents in Judges 13:2-24.

KJV Judges 13:2 ¶ And there was a certain man of Zorah, of the family of the Danites, whose name was Manoah; and his wife was barren, and bare not.

 3 And the angel of the LORD appeared unto the woman, and said unto her, Behold now, thou art barren, and bearest not: but thou shalt conceive, and bear a son.

 4 Now therefore beware, I pray thee, and drink not wine nor strong drink, and eat not any unclean thing:

 5 For, lo, thou shalt conceive, and bear a son; and no razor shall come on his head: for the child shall be a Nazarite unto God from the womb: and he shall begin to deliver Israel out of the hand of the Philistines.

 6 Then the woman came and told her husband, saying, A man of God came unto me, and his countenance was like the countenance of an angel of God, very terrible: but I asked him not whence he was, neither told he me his name:

 7 But he said unto me, Behold, thou shalt conceive, and bear a son; and now drink no wine nor strong drink, neither eat any unclean thing: for the child shall be a Nazarite to God from the womb to the day of his death.

 8 ¶ Then Manoah intreated the LORD, and said, O my Lord, let the man of God which thou didst send come again unto us, and teach us what we shall do unto the child that shall be born.

 9 And God hearkened to the voice of Manoah; and the angel of God came again unto the woman as she sat in the field: but Manoah her husband was not with her.

 10 And the woman made haste, and ran, and shewed her husband, and said unto him, Behold, the man hath appeared unto me, that came unto me the other day.

 11 And Manoah arose, and went after his wife, and came to the man, and said unto him, Art thou the man that spakest unto the woman? And he said, I am.

 12 And Manoah said, Now let thy words come to pass. How shall we order the child, and how shall we do unto him?

 13 And the angel of the LORD said unto Manoah, Of all that I said unto the woman let her beware.

 14 She may not eat of any thing that cometh of the vine, neither let her drink wine or strong drink, nor eat any unclean thing: all that I commanded her let her observe.

 15 ¶ And Manoah said unto the angel of the LORD, I pray thee, let us detain thee, until we shall have made ready a kid for thee.

 16 And the angel of the LORD said unto Manoah, Though thou detain me, I will not eat of thy bread: and if thou wilt offer a burnt offering, thou must offer it unto the LORD. For Manoah knew not that he was an angel of the LORD.

 17 And Manoah said unto the angel of the LORD, What is thy name, that when thy sayings come to pass we may do thee honour?

 18 And the angel of the LORD said unto him, Why askest thou thus after my name, seeing it is secret?

 19 So Manoah took a kid with a meat offering, and offered it upon a rock unto the LORD: and the angel did wondrously; and Manoah and his wife looked on.

 20 For it came to pass, when the flame went up toward heaven from off the altar, that the angel of the LORD ascended in the flame of the altar. And Manoah and his wife looked on it, and fell on their faces to the ground.

 21 ¶ But the angel of the LORD did no more appear to Manoah and to his wife. Then Manoah knew that he was an angel of the LORD.

 22 And Manoah said unto his wife, We shall surely die, because we have seen God.

 23 But his wife said unto him, If the LORD were pleased to kill us, he would not have received a burnt offering and a meat offering at our hands, neither would he have shewed us all these things, nor would as at this time have told us such things as these.

 24 And the woman bare a son, and called his name Samson: and the child grew, and the LORD blessed him.

So, at first this angel of the Lord is identified by Samson’s mother as a man – but one that looks like an angel!

Then Manoah speaks to the Lord and asks him to send back this man – indicating that at least in Manoah’s mind, the angel and the Lord are separate beings.

Then there’s this weird situation in which Manoah wants to offer sacrifice to this being that he knows to be a simple man – which would be idolatry, which is what was going on in Israel at this time in their history. And the angel needs to remind Manoah that his sacrifices should be offered to the Lord alone – not to any other being.

Manoah then wants to know the name of this angel and he tells him it’s a secret! That’s mysterious!

And after they offer the sacrifice and the angel of the Lord disappears, what is the conclusion that Manoah and his wife reach? “We have seen God!”

Angel of the Lord Elsewhere

And time fails us to speak of the 15 or so more times that the angel of the Lord is referred to by name in the Old Testament. But what we’ve seen I think has been helpful in increasing our understanding of this character in Scripture.

Back to Zechariah

And so, let’s return in our minds to Zechariah 1.

When we see this angel of the Lord on the red horse in the midst of the myrtle trees, we are seeing none other than a pre-New Testament appearance of Jesus Christ! He is both in his being God and at the same time a separate person. He is both God and man. And the fact that he’s described as an angel doesn’t mean that he was created – which Jesus Christ was not. He’s an angel in the sense that he’s a heavenly messenger bearing the message of Yahweh.

And as we see the angel of the Lord throughout the Old Testament and here in Zechariah, we get the sense that he’s concerned for his people. He comes and plays a role in comforting Israel after the Babylonian exile just like he came to Abraham and Hagar and Moses and Gideon and Samson’s parents in their hours of humiliation and danger and need.

And so, here in Zechariah, Jesus Christ comes to his people who are back in the land and he’s ready to comfort and guide them.

So, we’ll see the rest of his comfort and guidance for his people next time.

Zechariah 1 Commentary (Verses 7-12)

Zechariah 1 Commentary Verses 7-12

Zechariah 1 Commentary (Verses 7-12)
Explaining the Book of Zechariah


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Let’s turn our attention to the first chapter of the Old Testament book of Zechariah. Zechariah 1. We’re going to be studying verses 7-12 today.

This first vision that Zechariah receives from the Lord spans from verses 7-17, but we’ll only be covering the first six verses of this vision today.

So, let’s read this vision in its entirety to begin with. [Read Zec 1:7-17.]

Verse 7

Alright, so let’s then get into the details of this first vision of the prophet. Verse 7

KJV Zechariah 1:7 ¶ [Upon/On] the four and twentieth day of the eleventh month, which is the month [Sebat/Shebat], in the second year of Darius, came the word of the LORD unto Zechariah, the son of Berechiah, the son of Iddo the prophet [i.e., Zechariah…], [saying/as follows],


So, let’s talk about the date first.

The reference to the 11th month being called S[h]ebat is Babylonian in nature. This was not the original name of the 11th month in Hebrew.

And then “The twenty-fourth day of the eleventh month…in Darius’ second year was February 15, 519 b.c.” [NET Notes]

Remember… 1:1 “The eighth month of Darius’ second year was late October – late November, 520 b.c., by the modern (Julian) calendar. This is two months later than the date of Haggai’s first message to the same community.”

Word of the Lord

This is the second of 13 times that “the word of the LORD” is mentioned in this book. The first time was back in verse 1 to open the book with that call to the Jews to turn to the Lord. They then indeed did turn back to the Lord and the Lord kept his promise and is now turning back to them. Evidence of that fact will be readily apparent in this first vision to Zechariah.

And we need to realize that this is the last time we get this kind of introduction – with the dates and all – until chapter 7, verse 1. So, now as we hear of and study all of these visions that Zechariah receives, we’re in the same timeframe. All of these individual visions come on this day that we’ve mentioned – February 15th, 519 B.C. And as crazy as it sounds, this coming February 15th will mark 2,538 years since this time in Bible history.

Verse 8

So, here’s what Zechariah reports as he begins to relate this first vision.

8 [I saw by/I saw at/I was attentive that/During the] night, [and behold/I saw/I had a vision and there before me was]

a man [riding upon/was riding/seated on] a red horse[,/!]

and he stood among [the/some] myrtle trees that were in the [bottom/ravine];

and behind him were there red horses, [speckled/sorrel/brown], and white.

By Night

So, let’s first realize at what time of day Zechariah sees what’s put before him. This vision is given to him “by night.” What he sees, he sees in a night time setting.

And if what Zechariah sees happens at night, you might think that he wouldn’t be able to see details – or, really, much at all. And yet, he’s able to give some pretty detailed descriptions of what he’s seeing.

And whether Zechariah is receiving this message in a dream or in a vision, whatever medium that God is conveying this message to him allows for him to be aware both of the darkness that surrounds the subject matter of the vision as well as the details that God wants the prophet to be aware of.

It’s sort of like a dream that we might have – only of course ours aren’t divine – but we might be aware in a dream that what we see is transpiring in the night. And yet we’re totally aware of intricate details that in reality we would not at all be able to see. So, that’s sort of how it’s like for Zechariah.

OK so, let’s look at some of the details that the prophet saw.

Behold… A Man!

Zechariah all of a sudden becomes aware of the presence of this man. That’s why he says “behold!” – like “whoa – look at this!

So, he’s looking at a man. That’s all he knows that this being is for now. More will become clear as the vision progresses. But for now, this is simply a man. He looks like a man.

Riding Upon a Horse

And he’s riding a horse. He’s seated on a horse. And the horse that this man is seated on is red.


Do you wonder what kind of red we’re talking about? Because according to one source on the internet, there are at least 445 named red colors (

So, was this horse red or carmine or scarlet or vermilion or crimson or…?

Well, here’s some cross-reference information we have from other parts of Scripture.

This word “red” occurs regarding Esau at his birth – he came out red and all hairy. In fact, the Hebrew word is “adom” which sounds a lot like Edom, which is intentional.

This color is the color of the stew that Jacob made – which Esau wanted “a swallow of” because he was so hungry.

It’s the color of the die that was supposed to be applied to the rams’ skins that were draped over the Tabernacle.

This is the color of the heifer that was to be sacrificed and whose blood would be used to purify the Tabernacle.

This color is the color of blood.

It’s also the color of the wrong kind of wine that will lead to your drunkenness and foolishness.

This is also the color of Israel’s sin, which God wanted to make as white as snow.

This will be the color of God’s clothing when he comes from Edom – having slaughtered many people – looking as if his garments have been stained by grapes.

This color is used in combination with the color scarlet.

So – back to the color of this horse in this passage. Think of the color of red hair. Think of the color of blood. Think of the color or red wine. This is some sort of deep darker red that this horse is characterized by.

OK, so this man is sitting on a deep red-colored horse.

Month the Myrtle Trees

And he’s “among the myrtle trees.”

We get the name Haddasah or “Esther” from this word. These trees apparently are native to Palestine and the surrounding areas. They’re evergreens and they have a sweet fragrance, according to people who are in-the-know regarding middle eastern trees.

This is one of several trees whose branches the returned exiles used to make temporary booths in order to celebrate the Feast of Tabernacles.

The tree apparently grew well near water sources – like most trees do – because God promises in Isaiah to fill the desert with this kind of tree in the future. And whereas the myrtle can’t survive in deserts currently, God is going to do something amazing in the future that will allow for these myrtles to grow there.

And these trees are pleasant to mankind. They’re contrasted with the nettle – a bush that grows thorns. Not so with the myrtle – no thorns on this tree.

In the Bottom

And these trees are said to be “in the bottom.”

That term occurs 12 times in the Old Testament and most of the time it’s speaking of the seas or oceans – deep water.

But there’s at least one place where it’s simply speaking of a very low place. The Psalmist in Psalm 69:2 says, “I sink in deep mire, where there is no standing.” So, you get this idea of being in a low place.

And for the Psalmist of Psalm 69, that lowness was felt in his heart – he was experiencing depression and felt that he couldn’t sink any lower.

But for Zechariah, he’s experiencing this lowness in terms of the terrain. He is seeing this man on the dark red horse among the myrtle trees in a geographically low place.

Some have suggested that this is the Kidron Valley to the east of Jerusalem – between that city and the Mount of Olives. That very well might be.

Behind Him

And from there we discover that this man on the dark red horse is not alone in this valley area. Because “behind him were there red horses, speckled, and white.”

Physically behind him – from the prophet’s viewpoint – there are horses of different colors. It’s hard to say how many of each horse there was. It could be that there are four horses total including the one the man is riding. Or it could be that there are several of each color.

Also a little uncertain is whether these other horses have riders or not at this point. But that fact is cleared up later in the vision where we discover that indeed these horses do have riders.

So, we have these three colors mentioned concerning these horses – red, speckled, and white.


The red is the same word as was used for the horse mounted by the original man we’ve heard about.


The speckled color is interesting. There’s no other instance of this word being used in the Old Testament. Other translations have it as “sorrel” which is a reddish-brown or just plain “brown.” But without this word being used anywhere else, it’s hard to know what exactly this color is.


Then last there’s white.

This is the color of some of the sheep owned by Laban which Jacob took. In fact, the word for “white” in Hebrew uses the same three letters that make up the name Laban.

White is the color of teeth and milk.

This is also the color of the Manna that fell in the wilderness and the color of hair and the color of skin when those things are infected with leprosy and the color of the Psalmist David when he is washed by the Lord.

It’s the ideal color of clothing according to Qohelet in the book of Ecclesiastes.

God offers to turn the red sins of Israel into this color metaphorically in Isaiah.

This is also the color that you see on a tree branch when the bark is peeled back.

You get the idea. White is white!


OK, so we have dark red horses, horses that are of this other kind of color that’s kind of hard to determine – maybe brown, and then white horses.

So, are you wondering if those colors have any significance?

Or maybe you wonder more broadly about what these horses – not just their colors – signify.

Verse 9

If so, you’re in good company. Because that’s just what’s on the mind of Zechariah who was the first one to receive this vision, which prompts the following exchange in verse 9.

9 Then [said I/I asked] [i.e., someone nearby…],

[“][O my lord/Sir], what are these?[”]

What are These?

Now, note that he’s not asking who these are – like “hey, is that Bill and Fred over there?” He’s wanting to know what the message is that these horses and their riders are meant to convey to him. He knows this isn’t a divine horse show – he knows that God is communicating some sort of message through these gathered horses.

My Lord

Now, to whom is Zechariah speaking? Have we been introduced to anyone else beside the prophet and the horses and the man riding that one dark red horse so far?

You wouldn’t know it, but Zechariah just hinted that there’s another person in his presence when he addressed his question to “My lord” or “Sir.”

Who is this “Lord” or “Sir” that Zechariah is addressing seemingly out of nowhere? He’s an angel.

And the [angel that talked with me/angel who was speaking with me/angelic messenger who replied to me/angel who was talking with me] [said unto me/answered],

I will shew [thee/you] what [these/they] [be/are].

The Angel that Talked with Me

By the way, this angel who is referenced simply as “the angel that talked with me” is mentioned by that exact name 11 times in Zechariah 1-6. He basically guides the prophet – along with his confused readers – through these visions. And he finds a counterpart in the book of Revelation as well where John the Apostle a few times addresses an interpreting angel like Zechariah has in this book.

I Will Shew Thee

Well, this angel takes it upon himself to lead Zechariah through this vision and help him and us understand it. In Hebrew, the subject of the verb is implied here when he says “I will shew thee.” But he adds the subject in Hebrew just to be very clear – “I myself will shew thee.”

In a similar way, God told Abraham that he would show him the land of Canaan, in the psalms he promises to show his salvation to those who obey and love him, and in Micah he promised to show Israel miracles.

And now this same God has sent an interpreting angel to explain to Zechariah what these horses signify in his vision.

Verse 10

And yet, interestingly enough, it’s not the interpreting angel that follows-up that promise to show Zechariah what these are with an explanation. Rather, the man on the dark red horse speaks up in verse 10.

10 [And/Then] the man [that stood/who was standing] among the myrtle trees [answered and said/spoke up and said/explained],

These are [they/those/the ones] whom the LORD hath sent to [walk to and fro through/patrol/walk about on/go throughout] the earth.

Walk To and Fro

Now, these horses that are behind this man among the myrtle trees are said to “walk to and fro” in their realm, which is the earth.

Interestingly enough, in the book of Job, there’s a being that confesses twice that this was his activity – walking to and fro. And that being of course is Satan. He tells God that this was the activity that he’s constantly engaged in.

And because of what we come to know of these horses later on in this vision and because of Satan’s tactics described elsewhere as seeking those to devour like a roaring lion would – other translations translate this activity as something like “patrolling” – with the idea of perhaps performing reconnaissance on the Lord’s behalf.

These horses then are going throughout the earth and patrolling it and investigating its condition – investigation the condition of mankind and the nations in the time of Zechariah.

Verse 11

And what did they discover?

11 [And they/So they/The riders/And they] [answered/then agreed with/reported to] the angel of the LORD [that stood/who was standing] among the myrtle trees, and said,

We have [walked to and fro through/patrolled/been walking about on/have gone throughout] the earth, [and, behold,/and now/and found] [all the earth/everything/the whole world] [sitteth still, and is at rest/is peaceful and quiet/is at rest and quiet/at rest and in peace].

Sitteth Still and is at Rest

Literally, the whole world “sits and is quiet.” As opposed to standing and being troubled – at the time when Zechariah prophesies here the entire world as a whole is at peace.

Now, some think that this could be a vision of the future when Jesus reigns on earth and all is at peace. But I think this is better taken as describing the condition of the world in the days of Zechariah.

And this interpretation seems to fall in line with what we know of the second year of Darius’ reign according to those who specialize in the history of this time period. By his second year, Darius had put down several rebellions – including one led by a man who was pretending to be his brother, as strange as that seems. So, Persia had put down Babylon and all other potential rivals to their world domination.

So, there was peace on earth! And that sounds really nice to us. Especially as we approach the Christmas season we’re used to being reminded of Christ’s coming assuring the eventual ushering-in of peace on earth.

And in our present time we’re all acquainted with war being a constant reality throughout the world. We yearn for peace – I do, at least.

Verse 12

But this vision presents a different view of the world peace of Zechariah’s day. In a word, God is not happy about it.

12 Then the angel of the LORD [answered and said/said/asked],

O LORD [of hosts/who rules over all/almighty], how long [wilt thou not/before you] have [mercy/compassion] on Jerusalem and on the [other…] [cities/towns] of Judah, [against which/with which/which] [thou hast had/you have been] [indignation/so angry with] these [threescore and ten/seventy] years?

So, what’s the reaction of this angel of the Lord to the news of world peace? I don’t know that you would say that the angel is necessarily wanting the world to be at war. And yet, he’s looking at the contrast between what’s happening in the world – peace and calm – and what’s happening in his land – Israel. And of course, what’s happening is that his temple still is not complete and his people are poor and needy and oppressed. Yes, the Persians were allowing the Jews to return to their land. And yet, most of Jerusalem and almost all of the surrounding areas lay desolate!

How Long?

And this prompts the angel of the Lord to ask “how long?!” That phrase appears in the Old Testament 29 times.

And a few of those times it’s a literal question demanding a literal response. As if you tell a friend that you’re going on vacation soon and they respond with the question, “Oh, for how long?” “Just a week” is your reply.

But most of the time when we see the question “how long?!” it’s a rhetorical question. And the implication is that there’s been more than enough time that has already passed and now there needs to be a change. There needs to be action!

And that’s what this angel is submissively demanding of the Lord of hosts – How long?! Time is up! Things need to change here! They need to change right now! There’s no reason for any more delay!


Well, what’s the situation that the angel of the Lord says needs to change?

That would be God’s lack of mercy or compassion and his active indignation against Jerusalem and the cities of Judah.

How Long Wilt Thou Not Have Mercy

The Prophet Jeremiah spoke before the Babylonian exile on God’s behalf of the lack of mercy that the Lord would have to show toward his people. He warned the Jews before their exile to Babylon that he would not have mercy on them. In fact, he was going to send Babylon against them who would have no mercy on them. God was going to smash them into each other and have no compassion on them.

Jeremiah 21:7 And afterward, saith the LORD, I will deliver Zedekiah king of Judah, and his servants, and the people, and such as are left in this city from the pestilence, from the sword, and from the famine, into the hand of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon, and into the hand of their enemies, and into the hand of those that seek their life: and he shall smite them with the edge of the sword; he shall not spare them, neither have pity, nor have mercy.

But then in the same book – the book of Jeremiah, the Lord also prophesied of returning to them in mercy and compassion.

Jeremiah 12:15 And it shall come to pass, after that I have plucked them out [i.e., the exile] I will return, and have compassion on them, and will bring them again, every man to his heritage, and every man to his land.

Jeremiah 30:18 Thus saith the LORD; Behold, I will bring again the captivity of Jacob’s tents, and have mercy on his dwellingplaces; and the city shall be builded upon her own heap, and the palace shall remain after the manner thereof.

Jeremiah 33:25-26 Thus saith the LORD; If my covenant be not with day and night, and if I have not appointed the ordinances of heaven and earth; Then will I cast away the seed of Jacob, and David my servant, so that I will not take any of his seed to be rulers over the seed of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob: for I will cause their captivity to return, and have mercy on them.

And this turning of the Lord in mercy to his exiled people was spoken many centuries earlier in Deuteronomy 30:1-3. Let me read that.

KJV Deuteronomy 30:1 ¶ And it shall come to pass, when all these things are come upon thee, the blessing and the curse, which I have set before thee, and thou shalt call them to mind among all the nations, whither the LORD thy God hath driven thee, 2 And shalt return unto the LORD thy God, and shalt obey his voice according to all that I command thee this day, thou and thy children, with all thine heart, and with all thy soul; 3 That then the LORD thy God will turn thy captivity, and have compassion upon thee, and will return and gather thee from all the nations, whither the LORD thy God hath scattered thee.

So, these Jews of Zechariah’s day had indeed been scattered among the nations for their disobedience. But now they’re returning to the land. And they’re expecting this long-promised mercy and compassion. And amazingly, the Angel of the Lord himself is earnestly pleading for this compassion and mercy upon his people, the Jews.

Against Which Thou Hast Had Indignation

But for so long, the Jews’ capital city, Jerusalem, and the surrounding cities had been experiencing something quite different from compassion and mercy. They had been experiencing God’s indignation.

In light of the destruction of Jerusalem, Jeremiah said in Lamentations 2:6 “And he hath violently taken away his tabernacle, as if it were of a garden: he hath destroyed his places of the assembly: the LORD hath caused the solemn feasts and sabbaths to be forgotten in Zion, and hath despised in the indignation of his anger the king and the priest.”

70 Years

And the Angel of the Lord in Zechariah says that this kind of behavior – this lack of mercy and abundance of indignation – those had been happening in Jerusalem for how long? 70 years.

Now, there’s a period of 70 years that’s first mentioned in Jeremiah 25:11-14 and also 29:10

KJV Jeremiah 25:11 And this whole land shall be a desolation, and an astonishment; and these nations shall serve the king of Babylon seventy years. 12 And it shall come to pass, when seventy years are accomplished, that I will punish the king of Babylon, and that nation, saith the LORD, for their iniquity, and the land of the Chaldeans, and will make it perpetual desolations. 13 And I will bring upon that land all my words which I have pronounced against it, even all that is written in this book, which Jeremiah hath prophesied against all the nations. 14 For many nations and great kings shall serve themselves of them also: and I will recompense them according to their deeds, and according to the works of their own hands.

KJV Jeremiah 29:10 ¶ For thus saith the LORD, That after seventy years be accomplished at Babylon I will visit you, and perform my good word toward you, in causing you to return to this place.

So, in Jeremiah, the 70 years seems to be a limit upon the nation of Babylon. Babylon gets 70 years to rule the world. And then after that point, God would punish Babylon and eventually bring Judah back to her land.

Now, when does the 70 years begin? Well, if we count that period of time beginning in 605 BC when Babylon conquered Egypt at the battle of Carchemish, then that 70 year period would have ended about 535 BC.

Well, then we have Daniel the prophet seeing that promise in the book of Jeremiah. Daniel 9:1-3.

KJV Daniel 9:1 ¶ In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes, which was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans; 2 In the first year of his reign I Daniel understood by books the number of the years, whereof the word of the LORD came to Jeremiah the prophet, that he would accomplish seventy years in the desolations of Jerusalem. 3 ¶ And I set my face unto the Lord God, to seek by prayer and supplications, with fasting, and sackcloth, and ashes:

So, this happens in about 522 BC. That’s 13 years after the 70 years of Babylon had ended. And Daniel is a literalist. He takes the Bible at face-value and interprets it in a normal and literal way. And he sees that even though 70 years have passed – nay – even 83 years have passed –Jerusalem still lies in ruins.

And that’s pretty much what the Angel of the Lord is also doing in Zechariah here. He pleads with the Lord asking how long will he not have compassion on Jerusalem which he’s been indignant against the past 70 years! That’s not saying that this has been happening 70 years and no longer. I think what he’s saying is that it’s been 70 years – and longer even! And still the Lord is seeming to be angry with his people and his cities.

Isn’t it good to know that even in the midst of discipline from the Lord, that he’s still concerned for his people? Even when you feel like he’s totally forgotten you, he really hasn’t. He never will. God can both be indignant and concerned. And thankfully we have a God who is both just and merciful and he will keep his promises. He did to the Jews. He will for us, as well.

And the way that this vision proceeds we’re going to see God comfort this angel of the Lord and give a very encouraging word to the Jews.

But first – next time I think we’d do well to focus-in on whom this angel of the Lord really is. Surprisingly, the Bible has a lot to say about him and I think it’ll be an encouragement for us. So, that’ll be our topic of study next time.

What Is Zechariah 1 About? Verses 1-6

What is Zechariah 1 About Verses 1-6

What Is Zechariah 1 About? Verses 1-6
Explaining the Book of Zechariah


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What is Zechariah 1 About? Let’s turn our attention to Zechariah, chapter 1. We’ll be studying the first six verses in this chapter.

So, as we overviewed the entire book last time, we saw that there is a lot of hope and encouragement that Zechariah is giving the people of his day – the Jews who had returned from the exile in Babylon.

And so it’s kind of unexpected to receive this first message from the Lord in which he warns these people to not sin like their ancestors. And yet, in order to get to the encouragement, God needs to address the previous sins and get some assurance from these Jews that they do not intend to repeat the sins of those who have gone before them.

And I think that we’ll see at the end of this section that the people commit themselves to the Lord anew, which then allows God to move on to the rest of the encouragements in this book in subsequent messages.

We’ll read these six verses all together and then we’ll study each verse in detail…

What is Zechariah 1 About? Verse 1

So, let’s consider that first verse.

KJV Zechariah 1:1 ¶ In the eighth month, [in/of] the second year of Darius, came the word of the LORD unto Zechariah, the son of Berechiah, the son of Iddo the prophet [Zec. Is the prophet, not Iddo…], [saying/as follows],

What is Zechariah 1 About? “In the eighth month, in the second year of Darius”

Now, Darius was of course a king of Persia who ruled after king Cyrus. Cyrus was the one who is quoted in the Bible as allowing the Jews to return to their land and build a temple. Darius after him then ruled Persia from 522-486 BC. And that places this first prophecy of Zechariah’s at 520 BC. We’re not given a day, but the month mentioned would indicate a time of somewhere around October, November, or December.

Now, as I mentioned Cyrus allowed the Jews to return to their land. However, in Ezra 4:5 we’re told that the people of the land – the non-Jews who were already there at the time – they discouraged the Jews from building their temple. It says that that discouragement lasted, “all the days of Cyrus king of Persia, even until the reign of Darius king of Persia.”

So, the temple building began under Cyrus but really faltered until Darius took the throne. And now in his second year in 520 BC God is taking some action to make sure that his people start doing what he sent them there to do.

What is Zechariah 1 About? “came the word of the LORD”

And what kind of action is God taking? Well, he’s sending his word.

That phrase we just read, “came the word of the Lord” occurs 222 times in the Old Testament. The first time it occurs in Scripture is in Genesis 15 regarding Abraham after he had defeated the kings to recover his nephew Lot and right before God made a covenant with him. But the majority of the uses of this phrase occurs in the books of Jeremiah and Ezekiel – one, a prophet to Judah before the exile and the other, a prophet during the exile.

And now Zechariah comes on the scene and he uses this same exact phrase that had been in use for so many centuries. He utters this phrase 9 times – all in chapters 1-8. The Lord’s word is coming to him just like it did to Abraham so many centuries before and just like it came to the prophets of old – before and during the exile.

What is Zechariah 1 About? “unto Zechariah, the son of Berechiah, the son of Iddo the prophet”

And as we know, the Lord’s word came to this man named Zechariah, after whom this book is named.

He’s identified as the son of Berechiah – who is himself the son of a man named Iddo.

Now, there are several Zechariahs mentioned in Scripture:

  • There was a Zechariah who was a king of Northern Israel and Jeroboam’s son.
  • Zechariah was the name of the grandfather of the Judean king Hezekiah.
  • There was a Levitical gatekeeper by this same name.
  • There was a Zechariah in the family of king Saul of Israel.
  • There was a harpist by this name who rejoiced at the coming of the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem.
  • Zechariah was the name of someone sent by king Jehoshaphat to teach people God’s word.
  • In the times of king Joash, there was a prophet by this name who proclaimed to the people the evils of their apostasy. This Zechariah is likely the one that Jesus mentions in the New Testament as having been killed between the altar and the temple.
  • There was also a Zechariah who returned with Ezra the priest.
  • There was a Zechariah who pledged to put away his foreign wife under the ministry of Ezra.
  • And there are several others actually – both in the Old and New Testaments!

So, while there are many references to Zechariah in the Scripture, there’s of course only one post-exilic prophet Zechariah whose writings have been preserved for us.

This Zechariah – as we mentioned – is said to be the son of Berechiah, the son of Iddo.

By the way, it’s Zechariah who is the prophet – not Iddo. Sometimes that’s difficult to understand by a simple reading of the KJV. Zechariah is the prophet, whatever else Iddo may have happened to be.

Now, there’s a reference in Nehemiah 12:16 to a Zechariah who is the head of the household of Iddo. And these two men were priests. So, if this is the Zechariah who is mentioned in this book, then Zechariah is both a priest and a prophet.

Now, in Ezra, this Zechariah the prophet is mentioned twice. And in both cases he’s said to be the son of Iddo – with no mention of Berechiah. We can surmise any number of reasons as to why that is. But it isn’t unusual for grandsons to be referred to as “sons” of their grandfathers in the Old Testament.

Anyway, that’s the man – the prophet whose prophesies we’ll be studying.

What is Zechariah 1 About? Verse 2

So, now that we’re done with the introduction to this section, let’s get into the first message that God has for this prophet to proclaim to his fellow countrymen. And it’s a message of past judgement.

2 The LORD [hath been sore displeased/was very angry] with your [fathers/ancestors/forefathers].

Now, we’ve noted that this book is one that is filled with encouragement. But that’s not what we find in verse 2.

The message in verse 2 reminds the people of God’s great anger against their ancestors. Literally, in the Hebrew the verse starts with the verb form of “to be angry” and ends with the corresponding noun form. So, mechanically the word order goes like this: “ANGRY was Yahweh against your fathers ANGER.”

And I suppose that someone who is new to the Bible – and especially the Old Testament – might wonder why God was so angry. And the Lord will explain that in just a little while.

But certainly, the cause of God’s anger – and the reality of the results that God’s anger produced in the lives of their ancestors would have been obvious to the Jews of Zechariah’s time. They had – after all – just returned from exile in Babylon. And the main force behind that even happening was God’s very real and just anger.

What is Zechariah 1 About? Verse 3

But that’s not how things need to be for these people that Zechariah is now addressing – for the ancestors of those former Jews upon whom God’s anger was poured out. No – God wants to give these new Jews another chance.

3 Therefore say thou unto [them/the people],

Thus [saith/says] the LORD [of hosts/who rules over all/Almighty];

[Turn ye/Return/Turn] [unto/to] me, [saith/declares] the LORD [of hosts/who rules over all/Almighty],
[and/that] I [will/may] [turn/return] [unto/to] you, saith the LORD [of hosts/who rules over all/Almighty].

What is Zechariah 1 About? “saith the LORD of hosts”

Now, notice the authority that comes with this message of hope in verse 3. Did you catch how many times we’re told that this message comes directly from the Lord? He states that truth emphatically three times. That assurance – that this message is exactly what the Lord wants them to hear – it makes up the majority of the words in this verse.

And really, it starts sounding rather redundant in English. And even though in Hebrew there are two different words the Lord uses to say the word, “says” … yet, the redundancy would have been noticeable even to the original Hebrew audience. My point is that the unusual repetition here is not just an abnormality that’s created by translation from one language into another.

No – the Lord wants to make sure that these people know who is speaking this command. It’s the Lord – the God of the Hebrews – the God whose temple they’re supposed to be building – the God who cared enough about their ancestors to be angry with them and deal with their sin. This is their God speaking.

What is Zechariah 1 About? “Therefore say thou unto them”

And he’s speaking to “them.” Zechariah is commanded to give this message to “them.”

Who’s that? The fathers that God has been angry with?

No – it’s the people who were contemporaries of Zechariah.

What is Zechariah 1 About? “Turn ye unto me and I will turn unto you”

And the message is super simple. Really, when you cut out all the supporting words like “thus saith the Lord of hosts” the message is four words in Hebrew. Ten words in the KJV. It’s simple!

This is it. Return to me. And I return to you.

The Jews had departed. They had gone astray. And I think it’s important to note what they departed and went astray from.

Because God isn’t accusing them of leaving a creed. He wasn’t charging them with turning from a religious system. Those things might be in view. But the main object which they left wasn’t a thing. It was a person. It was the Lord. Their God.

And therefore, it’s not some creed or system or regimen that the Lord is commanding that these people return to – but rather they must return to him. The idea of the religion of the Bible really boiling down to a relationship with God is not unique to the New Testament. It’s right here even in the Old Testament.

And so, that’s the message for all of us as well. This is what God wants us to do as often as we find ourselves straying from him. We need to return… to him! When you are distant from God, the ultimate answer isn’t engagement in church programs or any other sort of external religious exercise. Those things are fine and good in their place. But they’re ineffective in facilitating your return to a person – to the God who loves you.

Picture how ineffective this is in human relations. If you have personally offended a fellow human in a very grievous way, will showing up to his house to shovel his driveway or wash his car – will that just immediately and magically mend all of your issues with that person? No, you need to actually talk to that person and restore the relationship before you do anything for him.

And that’s what God prescribes for his people the Jews. Return – not to stuff and actions – but to a person – to me.

And so, as we’ve noted now many times, the commanded action is that the Jews turn. This action indicates a rejection of their own ways and an embracing of the one true God and his desires and his work in the earth.

And that second line that promises that the Lord will turn and fully embrace these people is related to the first line (that the people would turn to God) in the sense that it’s a promise. If the people turn to God he promises to turn to them. There’s no possibility that they will turn to him just to have their embracing him met with coldness by the Lord toward his people. It’s a promise – “if you turn, I will turn as well.”

And the attendant idea is that God is very willing to do this. No one is twisting his arm. He’s ready and willing and waiting to be reconciled to his people.

What is Zechariah 1 About? Verse 4

Well, the Lord had made similar statements to the ancestors of these people with little result. And therefore, the Lord reminds them of this fact and warns these Jews not to act like their ancestors in this regard.

4 [Be ye not as/Do not be like] your [fathers/ancestors/forefathers],
[unto/to] whom the [former/earlier] prophets [have cried/proclaimed/called out], saying,

Thus [saith/says] the LORD [of hosts/who rules over all/Almighty];

[Turn ye/Return] now from your evil [ways,
and from your evil doings/wickedness/ways and your evil practices]:

but they [did/would] not [hear/listen],
[nor/or] [hearken unto/give heed to/pay attention to] me, [i.e., they would by no means obey me…]

[saith/declares/says] the LORD.

What is Zechariah 1 About? “Turn ye now”

So, notice that the message that God sent to these people’s ancestors was basically the same as the message he is giving them now. The message to God’s covenant people, the Jews, had been the same for centuries. “Turn!” or “Return!” or “Come back!

What is Zechariah 1 About? “from your evil ways, and from your evil doings”

The pre-exilic Jews were on the wrong “path” – which is another way to translate the word “ways” in the KJV. That’s referring to a road or path that you would walk down. The problem with the metaphorical path that these people were on was that it was characterized by the moral quality of “evil.”

And unsurprisingly while these pre-exilic Jews were on this road of evilness, they were doing things that matched the morality of that road. The people were engaged in “evil doings.”

And yet, despite the wickedness that these people were involved in and how offensive this all was to the Lord, yet he held out to them the possibility of turning from those things and returning to him.

What is Zechariah 1 About? “but they did not hear, nor hearken unto me”

But what was the response of the Jews before the exile to God’s gracious call to them? Well – they didn’t turn. They didn’t even hear or listen! They paid no attention whatsoever to God’s gracious call.

They acted as if there would never be any fallout from their disobedience to the Lord of hosts – the Lord of armies – who commands those armies of heaven.

What is Zechariah 1 About? Verse 5

But there was indeed fallout. And that’s what the Lord reminds the children and grandchildren of these disobedient pre-exilic Jews now through Zechariah.

5 [i.e., as for…] Your [fathers/ancestors/forefathers], where are they?
and the prophets, [do/did] they live for ever?

What is Zechariah 1 About? “Your fathers, where are they?”

Now, God is gracious here in the brevity of his statements in this verse.

God could have called to mind the horrors that the pre-exilic Jews faced as a result of their disobedience. Their land was invaded by terrifying armies. Their cities were destroyed. Their homes burned. Their temple burned to the ground. This once-free people had become slaves. This people who had been the object of God’s favor had become the objects of his wrath. They were mocked and taunted in captivity. They were placed in compromising humiliating situations. They were targeted for mass extermination – think of the story in Esther with Haman and his plot to murder all the Jews.

So, God could have mentioned all of that and much more to get this new generation of Jews to listen to his call to turn to him. But he doesn’t. Instead, the Lord just asks a simple question. “Where are your fathers? Your ancestors? Where are they?

And of course, to a thoughtful attentive Jew, they would have gone through in their minds all that I had mentioned. They didn’t need to be reminded of details. They knew very well what happened as a result of their ancestors’ disobedience.

And so, we see that God asks them what happened to their ancestors. Well, they suffered for their disobedience.

What is Zechariah 1 About? “and the prophets, do they live for ever?”

But what about the next group that the Lord mentions? The prophets. Why does the Lord mention them?

Well, in my mind, the key is to identify which prophets God is referring to.

Choice #1 is that these prophets that God references as not living forever is a subgroup of the larger group of prophets – these then are the false prophets. The Old Testament doesn’t seem to have a word or phrase like we do in English or in biblical Greek that designates a false prophet as opposed to a true prophet. A false prophet in the Old Testament is simply referred to as a prophet.

So, perhaps God is here referring to the false prophets – so many of whom were telling the pre-exilic Jews that they were safe. No reason to fear what those other prophets were warning regarding God being angry and wanting them to turn from their sins and back to God. No reason to fear an invasion by Babylon. And sometimes these false prophets would get really spiritual and argue this way – the Lord’s temple is in Jerusalem and therefore there is no way that he will let his temple be destroyed. I mean, it’s his temple!!!

But despite what these people claimed, God is now able to look back upon them and ask for rhetorical effect, where are those guys who said there’s no danger and that God isn’t angry?

So, that’s the first choice regarding who these prophets are that God mentions in verse 5.

The second choice is that these prophets that God is referring to are all the prophets, good and bad – but with a primary focus on the good ones. In this case, God is saying that yes, the pre-exilic disobedient Jews are gone. They were dealt with for their disobedience. And yet, it’s not just disobedience that causes the passing of a generation. Even the prophets – even the good ones – they pass on just like everyone else.

But why would God say that? Why would he mention that even the good prophets passed away?

What is Zechariah 1 About? Verse 6

It’s because in verse 6, God ends this first message through Zechariah by pointing to a great contrast. The rebels died and are gone. Even the prophets – good and bad – died and are gone. But on the other hand, you have God’s unchangeable, unshakeable words.

6 But my words and my [statutes/decrees], which I commanded my servants the prophets, did they not [take hold of/overtake/outlive] your [fathers/ancestors/forefathers]?

[and/then] they [returned/repented/paid attention] and [said/confessed],

Like as the LORD [of hosts/who rules over all/Almighty] [thought to/purposed to/said he would/determined to] do unto us,

according to our ways,
and according to our [doings/deeds], [i.e., because of our sinful ways or what our ways and practices deserve]

[so hath/indeed] he dealt with us.

What is Zechariah 1 About? “my servants the prophets”

So, note first that the prophets are simply servants of the Lord. The word they give – the good ones, at least – is the Lord’s and not their own. They’re simply messengers of the sovereign Lord.

What is Zechariah 1 About? “did … my words … not take hold of your fathers?”

And so, God’s words – spoken through his prophets – took hold of the pre-exilic Jews. “Took hold of” is a term that evokes images of hunting. It’s as if God’s words of judgement had hunted the Jews until they caught them – as in, when they were exiled.

  • That word that’s translated as “take hold of” is also used of Laban when he caught up to and overtook Jacob when Jacob was fleeing his crooked father-in-law.
  • This is the word used of Joseph’s Egyptian henchmen and their pursuing and overtaking Joseph’s brothers as they left Egypt with money in their sacks that they were unaware of.
  • Or when Pharaoh sent his army out after the Jews who left Egypt in the Exodus.

We could go on and on as this word occurs 50 times in the Old Testament. But suffice it to say that God is using a very picturesque word – one that involves hunting and pursuing and catching.

OK, so God mentions that his word overtook the Jews of old. Well, what words is God speaking of as overtaking them? Does he have any subset of all of the things that God has ever said in particular in mind? I think we do.

There’s another very important context in which the word we have translated here as “take hold of” is used. And that’s at the end of Deuteronomy. That’s where God moves Moses to remind the people of the covenant that he made with them – which is encapsulated in the Ten Commandments. At the end of Deuteronomy there are three times in which this word is used. You can turn there or just listen to these verses as I read them.

KJV Deuteronomy 28:2 And all these blessings shall come on thee, and overtake thee, if thou shalt hearken unto the voice of the LORD thy God.

OK, so there’s a promise to Israel. Obey the Lord and you will be amazingly blessed! In fact, it’s as if the blessing from God will pursue you like an eager and zealous army! That’s what Israel was promised by God for obedience to God’s words.

But then there has to be some repercussion if they disobey. And so, the Lord says just about the same thing again – but now he’s not talking about obedience and blessing. Rather, he’s going to address what happens when the people disobey a few verses later in Deuteronomy 28:15.

KJV Deuteronomy 28:15 ¶ But it shall come to pass, if thou wilt not hearken unto the voice of the LORD thy God, to observe to do all his commandments and his statutes which I command thee this day; that all these curses shall come upon thee, and overtake thee:

And it gets even worse, as the Lord uses this word one more time a few verses later in verse 45.

KJV Deuteronomy 28:45 Moreover all these curses shall come upon thee, and shall pursue thee, and overtake thee, till thou be destroyed; because thou hearkenedst not unto the voice of the LORD thy God, to keep his commandments and his statutes which he commanded thee:

And this is the special context that is in the Lord’s mind as he speaks through Zechariah. God had told the ancestors of the Jews of Zechariah’s day that obedience will result in unimaginable blessing! But disobedience will eventually result in curses that would be just as unimaginable.

And so it happened – disobedience to God’s words in the covenant he made with them finally resulted in exile for those people. And now, the Lord reminds the Jews that he kept his word.

What is Zechariah 1 About? “and they returned”

That much is clear. But it’s at that point where we are thrown a bit of a curve ball as we attempt to interpret the rest of verse 6.

I don’t know who you might think the “they” is referring to. There are two options.

Either “they” is referring to the Jews who went into exile. Or “they” refers to those post-exilic Jews who were listening to Zechariah.

And what makes it really difficult is that there is no final, “Thus says the Lord” to finish off the thought.

So, if “they” is referring to the Jews who went into exile, then the Lord is saying that those people acknowledged their sin in Babylon and they returned to the Lord in their hearts.

But, if “they” is referring to the Jews who were listening to Zechariah’s message then it’s saying that as they were listening to Zechariah’s reminder to them of their ancestors unfaithfulness, they themselves acknowledged that unfaithfulness – in addition to their own unfaithfulness in terms of refusing to rebuild the temple – and they repented and acknowledged that God is right and that they and their people have been wrong. And so, Zechariah is just reporting what happened as a result of his first prophesy to them.

Honestly, I think it’s something of a toss-up as to the identification of “they.” Most commentators seem to take it as the Jews of Zechariah’s day. And I personally like that interpretation.

That seems to go along with the generally very positive and hopeful tone of this whole book. It also allows God to move on from this opening oracle of past judgement to now him being able to work with a people who have actually repented and paid attention to his message. Plus, this goes along with what we hear about in Ezra and Nehemiah where the people do God’s will and finish building the temple under the leadership of Zechariah and Haggai and Joshua and Zerubbabel.

So, can you picture the difference then between what the former prophets and Zechariah faced when they proclaimed God’s word to his people? Jeremiah and all the others were ignored or persecuted or even killed. But Zechariah gives this super-simple message – “turn and I will turn, says the Lord” and all of a sudden the people do exactly what God says! They turn! They acknowledge God’s righteous judgments of times past. This is amazing!

But it shouldn’t be. This is after all the right thing to do. When God speaks, his people ought to listen and respond.

And so, these Jews who heard Zechariah’s message are an example for us. As we hear God’s word, is it our practice to ignore it? Is it our practice to flare up against it, even, and attack the one who’s giving us that word? Or is our response a humble and quick accepting of God’s demands?

That response is the only one that will receive God’s encouragement and hope. So, may the Lord help us to be like these Jews in hearing and promptly obeying God’s word.

A Summary of Zechariah

A Summary of Zechariah

A Summary of Zechariah
Explaining the Book of Zechariah


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A Summary of Zechariah: So, for the last year and a few weeks, we’ve grown accustomed to turning our attention to the book of Job. But unfortunately we came to the end of that book and now we need to move on to something else.

And as I prayed, a few different possibilities were in my mind. Finally, it seemed that the Lord had placed a specific book in my mind as the next subject of our study.

But it’s a really hard book. It’s really rather cryptic. And for that reason I initially despaired of even trying to seek to explain this book in front of all of you. But the Lord is able to give us understanding and help with this, so we’ll press on.

A Summary of Zechariah: In Brief

The book I’m referring to has a number of very interesting accounts. Allow me to lead you on for a little while longer! This book has horses and myrtle trees. There are four horns and four craftsmen. This book has a man with a measuring line, and the High Priest Joshua standing before the Lord being accused by Satan. There’s a candelabra being fed with olive oil. And don’t forget the flying scroll and the woman in the ephah being sent to Shinar. Chariots, a crown of gold, questions about fasting, and oracles about the nations and about Israel all are featured in this book. And this book – which is in the Old Testament – features several exciting but veiled references to the coming Messiah.

And so, of course, the book that I’m referring to and which we’ll be studying for a little while is the Old Testament book of Zechariah. So, let’s turn there.

A Summary of Zechariah: The Lord Remembers

Now, the name Zechariah (zakar + yah) means “Yah Remembers” – the LORD remembers. Well, what does the Lord remember? We’re going to see in this book that the Lord is displayed as remembering his people, Israel. He hadn’t forgotten them.

A Summary of Zechariah: Exile

Why is that important? Well, because the Jews had been in exile. Look at Zechariah chapter 1, verses 1-2.

KJV Zechariah 1:1 ¶ In the eighth month, in the second year of Darius, came the word of the LORD unto Zechariah, the son of Berechiah, the son of Iddo the prophet, saying,

2 The LORD hath been sore displeased with your fathers.

Let’s skip verse 3 and read verses 4-6.

KJV Zechariah 1:4 Be ye not as your fathers, unto whom the former prophets have cried, saying,

Thus saith the LORD of hosts;

Turn ye now from your evil ways, and from your evil doings:

but they did not hear, nor hearken unto me,

saith the LORD.

5 Your fathers, where are they? and the prophets, do they live for ever?

6 But my words and my statutes, which I commanded my servants the prophets, did they not take hold of your fathers?

and they returned and said,

Like as the LORD of hosts thought to do unto us,

according to our ways, and according to our doings,

so hath he dealt with us.

Now, this is pointing to the reality of the exile of Judah by Babylon. A long time prior to Zechariah’s ministry, God had been calling these people to repent. They refused. And so, God had to send them out of their land for 70 years.

Now, at this point as Zechariah is prophesying, God is speaking with the children and grandchildren of those exiles. And he does so – it says here – in the second year of Darius.

By the way, that’s one of three time-references in this entire book – in chapter 1, verse 1. The second time-reference that we’re given is in chapter 1, verse 7. And then the last time-reference we’re given is in chapter 7, verse 1.

And we’ll try to get into the details of the time frame discussed in this book as we deal with the individual chapters and verses throughout this study. But suffice it to say that a certain number of Jews had returned from Babylon at this point in history. And they were charged by King Cyrus of the Persians – and by the Lord himself – to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem.

But the people got discouraged.

Is there anyone in here like that? You have a task that you know that God wants you to perform but it’s hard and you’re ready to quit. That’s what was happening in Israel in Zechariah’s time.

And so, God sent this prophet, Zechariah – as well as the prophet Haggai – and their job was to encourage the people to continue the work that God had for them.

So, in the midst of this situation, God has the following message of encouragement for his covenant people, the Jews. That’s verse 3 of chapter 1 of Zechariah.

KJV Zechariah 1:3 Therefore say thou unto them,

Thus saith the LORD of hosts;

Turn ye unto me, saith the LORD of hosts,
and I will turn unto you, saith the LORD of hosts.

So, draw near to God and he will draw near to you. That’s the message that the Lord gives Zechariah to start off this book of the recorded prophecies that were given to him. God is ready to receive his formerly disobedient people. He’s ready to restore and forgive. He’s giving them another chance. This is a hopeful book. The Lord indeed is remembering (zakar-ing!) his people.

And in God’s manifold wisdom, he doesn’t choose to convey this message of hope and encouragement in a straightforward manner. Instead, God gives visions to Zechariah, which the prophet then records for us to read now thousands of years after they were originally given.

So, in chapter 1 and verse 8 and running through to the end of Zechariah chapter 6, the prophet relates to us 9 visions. And all of them contain some message of hope for God’s previously forgotten – but now remembered people!

A Summary of Zechariah: First Vision

Look at chapter 1, verse 8…

KJV Zechariah 1:8 I saw by night,

and behold a man riding upon a red horse,

and he stood among the myrtle trees that were in the bottom;

and behind him were there red horses, speckled, and white.

And that’s it. That’s literally what Zechariah sees. Now, this isn’t happening in the physical material realm. This is a vision. That’s very important to note.

We need to read the Bible literally. And part of that literal reading is taking the author seriously when he tells you that what he’s conveying to you he saw in a vision. Not in this material world – but rather something that God portrayed to the prophet.

So, the prophet isn’t saying that he woke up at night to peek out his window and then he saw myrtle trees and horses of several different colors. God is giving him this vision in a supernatural way. But he is literally seeing these things even if they are not literally, physically, materially there.

Now, sometimes, these visions can be confusing to us. And while that’s sort of embarrassing to us and humbling and maybe even a little frustrating, we’re actually in good company. Because Zechariah himself couldn’t understand what these things meant either. Verse 9…

KJV Zechariah 1:9 Then said I,

O my lord, what are these?

And the angel that talked with me said unto me,

I will shew thee what these be.

And of course the angel explains what Zechariah is seeing. These horses go throughout the earth and discover that all the nations are calm and peaceful at this point in history. And yet, Jerusalem and greater-Israel are in ruins. God’s place is desolate.

And so, the Lord speaks words of comfort. He expresses his anger toward the nations and then promises to rebuild the Temple in Jerusalem and repopulate Jerusalem.

And while certainly some of this was fulfilled in the years between the Old and New Testaments, its ultimate fulfillment will occur in the Millennium when Jesus the Jewish Messiah reigns in this great city of Jerusalem.

So, that’s Zechariah’s first encouraging vision. God is going to favor Israel once more.

A Summary of Zechariah: Second Vision

So, let’s move on to the second vision. Read chapter 1, verse 18.

KJV Zechariah 1:18 ¶ Then lifted I up mine eyes, and saw, and behold four horns.

Now, mind you, this is still in Zechariah’s dream vision. We’re in his dream visions until the end of chapter 6.

And what Zechariah goes on to relate in this second vision is that the horns – probably looking to him like literal animal horns – that they represent the nations that have oppressed God’s people the Jews. And these nations are the ones that are now at ease, as the horsemen just attested to.

But there’s good news. God is going to send some craftsmen to shave down and cut off these horns so that they won’t scatter God’s people anymore.

Now, are God’s covenant people the Jews still scattered? They are. Are there still nations that are seeking to scatter them yet again? Yes. But there’s a day coming when that will no longer be the case.

And the Jews didn’t experience this deliverance in Zechariah’s time or in the time leading up to Jesus’s first advent. They’re not experiencing this today. So, can you guess when this will finally happen for them? Once more, in the Millennium when Jesus their Messiah King and ours is reigning in Jerusalem.

So, that’s the end of Zechariah’s second vision. God will deliver Israel from their enemies.

A Summary of Zechariah: Third Vision

So, let’s move on to Zechariah’s third vision.

Zechariah sees a man with a measuring line in his hand in chapter 2, verse 1. And that prompts him to make the following comment in verse 2.

KJV Zechariah 2:2 Then said I,

Whither goest thou?

And he said unto me,

To measure Jerusalem, to see what is the breadth thereof, and what is the length thereof.

Well, that’s still not so clear to us or to the prophet. And so, an angel comes and explains a bit more to Zechariah. Basically, the idea is that Jerusalem will once again be inhabited. And that God will protect her and actually dwell in her.

And because of that, God calls for his scattered people to come back to the land and to escape from the places to which they were previously scattered.

And then we get this awesome glimpse of the Lord sending… the Lord to deliver the Jews from the nations that are oppressing them and then to personally dwell in their midst.

And the result is that not only will the Jews be gathered to the Lord, but even many nations will be as well.

So, that’s Zechariah’s third vision. Jerusalem will be repopulated, dwelt in, and protected by Jesus – their Messiah and ours.

A Summary of Zechariah: Fourth Vision

Let’s briefly consider then his fourth vision.

Read chapter 3, verse 1.

KJV Zechariah 3:1 ¶ And he shewed me Joshua the high priest standing before the angel of the LORD,

and Satan standing at his right hand to resist him.

And so, with Joshua we have the representation of Israel’s religious system and leadership. The problem that will become apparent as you read through this vision is that Joshua is in filthy clothes. Israel’s religion had become defiled by gross idolatry and immorality and disobedience. That’s why God had to kick them out of the land.

But that’s not the emphasis of this vision. The emphasis is on restoration.

The Lord rebukes Satan – not listening to the accusations that he was hurling against the High Priest. And then Joshua is clothed with fine and clean garments, signifying that God has once again cleansed his people’s religious system and leaders.

And that’s just the beginning. God was going to do something much better in the future. Because it’s here in this vision that God prophesies that he is going to bring forth the man he identifies mysteriously as “The Branch.”

And we learn here and in the book of Jeremiah that this Branch is the Messiah – whom we now know to be Jesus of Nazareth. And this vision will end by speaking of the peace that this one will bring to Israel and the whole world.

So, that’s the fourth vision. A cleansed and restored religious system and leadership – ultimately, preparing the way for the ultimate High Priest – Jesus the Messiah.

A Summary of Zechariah: Fifth Vision

Time for Zechariah’s fifth vision.

And we find that in chapter 4. Let’s read verses 1-3.

KJV Zechariah 4:1 ¶ And the angel that talked with me came again, and waked me, as a man that is wakened out of his sleep,

2 And said unto me,

What seest thou?

And I said,

I have looked, and behold a candlestick all of gold, with a bowl upon the top of it, and his seven lamps thereon, and seven pipes to the seven lamps, which are upon the top thereof:

3 And two olive trees by it, one upon the right side of the bowl, and the other upon the left side thereof.

And so, that’s what he sees. So… what does that mean?! That’s what we all wonder.

And again, thankfully Zechariah is just as in-the-dark as we are! And so, he asks the angel about what this means.

And the Lord then gives a message to Zerubbabel that’s based on this vision. Zerubbabel was the governor of Judah at this time. And God wants him to know that God will use him to rebuild the temple – not by might nor by power – but by God’s spirit. Just like the oil in the vision constantly was being supplied to the candle contraption – so too God’s spirit would continually provide the needed grace and strength for Judah’s governor to finish the work on the temple.

And toward the end of this vision, Zechariah asks about those two olive trees and olive branches that provide the oil. And God says that these are the two anointed that stand before him. And so, I honestly don’t at this point feel prepared to give the interpretation of that. One source says that these represent Joshua and Zerubbabel. I’m just not quite sure yet. And that’s why we’ll be going through each of these chapters in some detail in the coming weeks.

But, the big idea is that not only has Israel’s religious system been set right – Israel’s governing system has been fixed. Both their High Priest and now their Governor are both receiving God’s help and grace and acceptance. That’s the big idea behind this fifth vision.

A Summary of Zechariah: Sixth Vision

So, let’s move on to the sixth vision.

Now, the sixth and seventh visions as I count them seem to be related in that they picture something flying in the air.

So, let’s become acquainted with the sixth vision in chapter 5, verse 1.

KJV Zechariah 5:1 ¶ Then I turned, and lifted up mine eyes, and looked, and behold a flying roll.

Or a scroll that was flying. And we’ll see that this scroll is a full 30 feet long and 15 feet wide!

And we’re going to see the activity of this scroll. It destroys sinners – people who are transgressing against God’s law.

And that seems to be perhaps not be so encouraging. And yet, we need to recall that much of the suffering and misery in this life is caused by people sinning against others. In fact, this was a large part of the reason that all Israel needed to be exiled – they couldn’t stop sinning against and abusing one another. And God was gracious with them for a long time. And that actually encouraged them to keep on sinning in more extreme ways.

But God is picturing a time when it’s as if his law flies through the air and into homes and deals immediately with sin. This will be a good thing.

And I think this is picturing a time when Jesus the Messiah reigns on earth and sin is dealt with promptly and appropriately.

A Summary of Zechariah: Seventh Vision

So, let’s get to the seventh vision.

It begins in chapter 5, verse 5 with an ephah – a large container – going out of the land of Israel.

But what’s really interesting in this vision is the content of that container. Look at verse 7.

KJV Zechariah 5:7 And, behold, there was lifted up a talent of lead:

and this [is/!] a woman that sitteth in the midst of the ephah.

So, the heavy lead lid of this ephah is lifted and we’re confronted with a woman sitting in it. And again, let’s remind ourselves that this is a dream vision outside of the realm of time and space. This is not a literal woman with flesh and blood and a soul. This is the portrayal of such a woman.

My point is – don’t feel bad for the woman. This vision could have the warning: “No women were harmed in the giving of this vision.” This is not advocating putting women in ephahs, either! Don’t do that.

So, we’re told then that this woman is wickedness! That’s the meaning of this woman. Wickedness is being taken out of the land of Israel – purged out.

But she ends up somewhere. And that’s in the land of Babylon, where there will be a place made for her.

God’s temple goes up in Jerusalem and as a result, wickedness needs to find its own place somewhere else.

So, to summarize visions 6 and 7, sin will be dealt with in Israel and wickedness will be cast out. And in its place, the Messiah will rule in Jerusalem.

A Summary of Zechariah: Eighth Vision

That gets us to the eighth vision of Zechariah.

Let’s read chapter 6, verse 1.

KJV Zechariah 6:1 ¶ And I turned, and lifted up mine eyes, and looked, and, behold,

there came four chariots out from between two mountains;

and the mountains were mountains of brass.

So, we get the picture of strength. And we’ll see that there are four horses, all of different colors. And they go forth to the south and to the north. And they quiet the north country – perhaps Babylon.

And I hope to find more significance in this vision as we study it in a more concentrated fashion later on. But for now, that’s what we see – God’s spirits as he calls these horses going forth to put down rebellion from the nations. And this certainly will be the case when Jesus the Messiah reigns.

A Summary of Zechariah: Ninth Vision

Alright, on to the ninth and final vision.

This vision ends chapter 6. And in it we see some exiles coming from Babylon to make a crown. They put that crown on Joshua the High Priest. Well, that’s strange because priests don’t wear crowns!

Ah, but there will be a priest who wears the crown in Israel someday. And that’s this enigmatic figure referred to once more as “The Branch.” He’s going to rebuild the temple.

Wait – I thought Zerubbabel builds the temple! He does – but there’s going to be another one after that! And Jesus the Messiah will build it.

And what’s more – he will rule as a priest and a king. Kings and priests were separate offices in the Old Testament. But Jesus will be both king and priest. I should say, he is right now both king and priest!

And that’s the end of the visions in this book.

A Summary of Zechariah: Fasting

The next section runs from chapter 7, verse 1 to chapter 8, verse 23.

And the situation is laid out for us in chapter 7, verses 1-3.

KJV Zechariah 7:1 ¶ And it came to pass in the fourth year of king Darius, that the word of the LORD came unto Zechariah in the fourth day of the ninth month, even in Chisleu;

2 When they had sent unto the house of God Sherezer and Regemmelech, and their men, to pray before the LORD,

3 And to speak unto the priests which were in the house of the LORD of hosts, and to the prophets, saying,

Should I weep in the fifth month, separating myself, as I have done these so many years?

So, the question is whether they should weep and fast. Apparently, after the exile – to commemorate the destruction of Jerusalem by Babylon and the destruction of the former temple, these Jews had been holding some sort of formal religious observance marking these events with some level of somberness and sorrow.

And God’s response will be one that we’ve heard numerous times in the Old Testament. And that is to say that God was aware of their external religious devotion – fasting and weeping – and yet, that fasting wasn’t really for him. The external show of humility and repentance was not matched by the internal reality of a truly repentant heart.

And so, God calls on them to do what he wanted their ancestors to do. Not the external religious devotions devoid of all internal reality – but he wanted their hearts and he wanted them to do right. And that God’s big emphasis through to the end of chapter 7. Live right! Don’t expect to live as a pagan and then do some little religious exercises and consider yourself to be fine with God. No – live it! Live your faith.

And then God begins chapter 8 breaking out with wonderful magnificent promises to restore Israel and Judah and to do them tremendous good and to bless them. And he just wants them to learn from the mistakes of their fathers and to do right.

And then finally at the of chapter 8, the Lord returns to their original question about fasting. And God basically says that he’s going to make those fasts into feasts. He’s going to turn their sorrow into singing.

And the result will be that all sorts of nations will come and seek out the Jews because they want to go up to the House of the Lord in Jerusalem! What a day that will be!

A Summary of Zechariah: Burdens

Now, we still have chapters 9-14 left.

And these chapters consist of prophesies concerning a large range of time – from Zechariah’s day through to the Millennium when Jesus the Messiah is reigning in Jerusalem.

A Summary of Zechariah: Burden 1

Chapter 9 starts with an oracle against an area that extends from up north in modern-day Syria down through the Mediterranean coast near Israel.

And many of those nations and cities in that area will be destroyed. But God will protect Jerusalem in that day.

And then we have an amazing reference to Israel’s king coming lowly and seated on a donkey – which is referenced by the Gospel writer concerning Jesus’s coming into Jerusalem at the start of his passion week.

And to the end of chapter 9 there seem to be alternating times of military loss and victory for the Jews, with victory being the permanent condition eventually for them.

Chapter 10 then is addressed to the Jews and is full of promises of future strengthening of them and answering of their prayers.

Chapter 11 then is addressed to Lebanon at the beginning with threats of burning and destruction.

And then for the majority of that chapter there’s this talk of shepherds and sheep and staffs being broken and 30 silver pieces being given to the potter and a foolish shepherd who will not care for the flock. And I trust that we’ll gain more insight into that chapter as we study it in detail.

A Summary of Zechariah: Burden 2

Then, chapter 12. It’s a burden concerning Israel.

All the nations one day will come against Jerusalem. And God will protect that city and fight for it and destroy those nations.

And then at that time, the people of Israel will all mourn when they see the one whom they’ve pierced. We all know who that is! Jesus the Messiah!

Then in chapter 13 God tells of a time when he will open a fountain of cleansing for Israel. And he’ll destroy all idols. And there will be no more false prophets in the land.

But in the midst of that discussion, God foretells striking his shepherd and having the sheep scatter. And from there into chapter 14 God speaks of a major battle that’s to occur in Israel. But God will fight for them and carve with his foot a valley into the midst of the Mount of Olives and living waters will flow from Jerusalem into the Dead Sea and Mediterranean Sea. The Lord will rule the whole world in that day and every nation will come to Jerusalem to worship Jesus and everything will be utterly holy to the Lord.

And that’s the book of Zechariah. I hope this introduction will help us see the big picture as we get into the details in the coming months.

Job 42 Summary

Job 42 Summary

Job 42 Summary
Explaining the Book of Job


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Job 42 Summary: Let’s turn our attention to Job chapter 42. We’ll be studying the last chapter of the book of Job today.

We started this series October 15th, 2017. And even though that was more than 52 weeks ago, this is only the 47th lesson in this series.

And so, we’ve studied through the entire book of Job.

In the beginning we were introduced to this righteous man. And then we were made aware of this meeting in heaven in which God brings Job to Satan’s attention. Satan insinuates that Job is righteous only because of what God gives him – only because God favors him and blesses him with all sorts of good things in this life.

So then God took those things away in order to prove to Satan that Job was genuinely righteous and that God wasn’t somehow buying Job’s obedience and devotion.

And Job started well. Even when his wife encouraged him to curse God and die, Job refused – and actually gently rebuke his wife, encouraging both of them to take both good and evil from the Lord.

But by the time that Job’s three friends come and they sit with him in silence for seven days, Job related to them what a struggle he was having in his heart. He began by cursing the day of his birth and wishing for death. Life had gone from unrestrained blessing to unrelenting pain and suffering.

And what was most difficult for Job was that God seemed to be punishing him. And Job couldn’t figure out the cause of this punishment. It didn’t make sense to Job.

And Job wasn’t alone. His three friends also sensed that God was punishing Job. And so they urged him to stop sinning and start praying. And if he did, they assured him, God would stop the punishment and bring back the blessings.

There was only one problem with that arrangement in Job’s mind. Job was not sinning and he was praying. And so, he knew that this punishment – as he saw it – was undeserved. And therefore, his mind started going in the direction of placing blame as well – just like his three friends. Only, Job wasn’t going to blame himself – because he knew he was innocent and undeserving of punishment. So, Job took the step of starting to blame God.

Not that God is evil – in Job’s mind. But maybe God just is a little bit mistaken. Or maybe God is finding fault with Job in some area that Job knows nothing about – sort of unfairly punishing him for secret sins that Job himself is unaware of.

And so, Job begins to demand that God explain himself. Job orders God into court to defend his ways – his mysterious, confusing ways – in Job’s life.

And that’s when Elihu comes and is angry that the three friends have no charge against Job and yet they accuse him anyway. And he’s also angry at Job because Job was basically making God look bad in order that he might look good. And Job didn’t need to do that. God can remain perfect and his people remain righteous – even when we’re suffering. We don’t need to make God look bad when we’re suffering.

And one thing that Job really should have reckoned with is the fact that not all suffering is punishment. When God brings suffering into our lives, that doesn’t necessarily mean that he’s angry with us. It doesn’t mean that he is exacting punishment on us. And Elihu even said as much.

And then the Lord shows up. Just like Job was demanding. But, the Lord wasn’t prepared to explain himself to Job. God had no plan to lay out the whys and wherefores to Job about his suffering. God said not a word about Satan. Those things are not what Job needed to learn.

What Job needed to learn is what we need to learn. That when God’s ways don’t make sense to us, we need to trust his wisdom.

And so, the Lord started questioning Job on various aspects of nature that God perfectly controls – just like he perfectly controls the lives of his people. And God asked Job – can you do this? Do you know this? Where were you when this happened?

And the only one who could answer any of those questions was God himself. Not Job.

Job was demanding that God explain his ways to him – in particular, in the realm of Job’s circumstances. And God’s questions were intended to help Job see that Job can’t even understand what God does throughout creation. How would Job even begin to understand why and how God was working in his life the way he was?

And then God challenges Job to try out being God for a day!

And then the Lord brought to Job’s attention two wonderful beasts that each were intended to teach Job something.

Behemoth was to be imitated by Job. Behemoth lived with the strength that God gave him without worry and without fear. And Job needed to take the posture of that creature.

And then Leviathan. Job was supposed to think about God and treat God more like Job treated this dangerous powerful creature. Job was treating God so commonly – as if it’s proper to impel the Master of the Universe to a court of law so that he can explain himself and make himself accountable to a puny little creature like man is. Job wouldn’t expect Leviathan to show up for his day in court! Why should he expect God to do so?

Job 42 Summary | God Can do Any/Every Thing

And after all of that – forty-one chapters that have taken us over a year to study – Job gives his final response to the Lord in verse 1 of chapter 42.

KJV Job 42:1 Then Job [answered/replied to] the LORD, and said,

2 I know that thou canst do [every thing/all things],
and that no [thought/purpose/plan] can be [withholden/thwarted] [from thee/of yours].

So, this the first confession of a man who’s seen God and been rebuked by him. The response is “I know you can do everything.” And on the opposite side of that, “I know there’s nothing you can’t do.

If God wants to stop the suffering of one of his people, no one will stop him. If God – in his sovereign wisdom – chooses to bring suffering into the life of one of his faithful servants, suffering that servant will have to endure.

It’s all up to the Lord though. He gives and he takes. And whatever he does, he’s right. And whatever he decides to do cannot be stopped by anyone but him.

Job 42 Summary | I Spoke Ignorantly

And in light of this reality that God can do anything and won’t be stopped by anything, Job makes a second confession in verse 3.

3 [you asked…] Who is [he/this] that [hideth/darkens/obscures] [my…] counsel without knowledge?

By the way – let interject here – that’s not Job speaking to the Lord. As in that’s not Job accusing God of hiding counsel without knowledge.

Rather, this is Job repeating a question that God had asked him earlier in the previous few chapters.

Job is saying, “you asked me, ‘Who is this that hides or darkens or obscures counsel without knowledge.’” And the idea is that Job is saying – “you were right, God.” And that’s what he admits to in the rest verse 3.

[therefore/but/surely] [have I/I have] [uttered/declared/spoke of] that I understood not;
things too wonderful for me, which I knew not.

So, Job’s second confession to the Lord is that he spoke ignorantly. He spoke as if he fully understood things that now he’s come to see he has no idea about. Job spoke so confidently about his own innocence – and equally confidently about the fact that he believed that God was wrong in the way he was dealing in Job’s life.

But after all these questions and all these mighty works of God paraded before him, Job realizes that he knows nothing! He doesn’t understand. He doesn’t know. He couldn’t make the world work for one millisecond! He was way out of line in speaking of things that he’s so ignorant of.

And brethren, we need to be aware of this fact as well. Let me just put it rather bluntly – what areas of your life do you think that God is totally botching? Or has totally botched? Are there events in your life that you look at – and to think of them fills you with bitterness toward others and ultimately toward God himself?

Can you see things the way that God sees them and understand that you really don’t understand? Have you been humbled to the point of Job and confess that those things that you take issue with God about – really, you’re the one who’s in the wrong.

Job 42 Summary | I See You and Abhor Myself

Well, Job has one more confession to make in verses 4-6.

4 [You said…] [Hear, I beseech thee/Hear now/Pay attention/Listen now], and I will speak:
I will [demand of/ask/question] thee, and [declare thou unto/you instruct/you will answer] me.

And once more, I’ll break in and remind us that Job is not at this point demanding God to answer him. Job again is repeating to God a question that God himself asked Job in the last few chapters.

And Job wants to let the Lord know that he did indeed hear the Lord. God commanded Job to hear. And so, Job says…

5 I [have/had] heard of thee by the hearing of the ear:
[but/and?] now mine eye seeth thee.

Job has heard from and seen God. He has indeed listened and paid attention to the Lord. And now he has this extra added bonus of actually seeing God.

And certainly Job is speaking of physical sight. And yet, I think Job is pointing to a reality beyond that. Job has not just seen the physical representation of the Lord. But he’s experienced God. Through Job’s suffering and the struggles that have attended that suffering, Job has literally come face-to-face with the Lord and he has experienced God. It’s not just hearing about God from his three friends or from his wife. No – now Job has heard from and experienced God directly. And that’s enough for him.

And this is Job’s response to that reality.

6 [Wherefore/Therefore] I [abhor myself/retract/despise myself],
and repent in dust and ashes.

So, Job confesses to both hearing and seeing God. And he confesses that his response is like Isaiah’s – “Woe is me! I am unclean!” Or as Job puts it, “I abhor myself and repent!

And that’s Job’s last statement.

He’s confessed that God can do anything. That Job himself spoke ignorantly. And that he has seen and experienced God and therefore abhors himself and repents.

No more arguments. No more accusations. No more demanding God to come to court and explain himself.

God has spoken. And that is enough for Job.

So, that’s how God rebukes Job and sets things right with that righteous man.

Job 42 Summary | God Rebukes the Friends

But God’s not done dealing with people. Elihu doesn’t need to be dealt with by God. He generally spoke on God’s behalf and experiencing no rebuke from the Lord.

But Job’s three friends are another matter. God rebukes them in verse 7.

7 ¶ [And it was so, that after/It came about after/After] the LORD had [spoken/said] these [words/things] unto Job,

the LORD said to Eliphaz the Temanite,

So, we notice that the Lord targets Eliphaz. Now, we’re going to see God speak to all three of these men. And yet, somehow Eliphaz gets the direct attention of God. This might indicate that Eliphaz was perhaps the leader of this group. Maybe that also explains why he would begin each of the three sections of dialog between Job and his friends.

But anyway, God addresses Eliphaz and says…

[My wrath is kindled against/My anger is stirred up against/I am angry with] thee, and against thy two friends:

Why? Why is God angry at these three men?…

[for/because] ye have not spoken [of/about] me [the thing that/what] is right,

as my servant Job hath.

So, even though Job was wrong in his approach to God in demanding that God explain himself to Job – God says here that what Job said about him was essentially correct.

These friends on the other hand were speaking falsehoods about God. And yet, we remember that they had the wisdom of the ancients on their side – they had the testimony of ancient wise men who had passed on before them. One of these guys kept referring to visions he had received – remember the spirit passing before one of their faces at night and causing him great fear and then giving him a revelation. All of that is nonsense when it doesn’t correspond to the word of God.

Visions and experiences and ancient wisdom is all fine and well – but these are not what we should be basing our life on. Our experience is not what we should be pulling out and relating to someone who is suffering. The person who is suffering needs God’s words delivered to him compassionately and patiently.

And so, these three friends had not spoken orthodox doctrine to Job. They had said things about God that just weren’t true. They had asserted that God always punishes evil and always rewards good in this life and pretty much immediately. And God says here, “that’s just not right!

Job 42 Summary | God Orders the Friends to Sacrifice

And so, because of the folly of these friends, God would be right to destroy them on the spot. Or even to apply to them the kind of suffering that Job had experienced.

And yet, instead, we’re going to see God be merciful to these three men and command them to sacrifice in verse 8.

8 [Therefore/Now therefore/So now] take [unto you now/for yourselves] seven [bullocks/bulls] and seven rams, and go to my servant Job, and offer up for yourselves a burnt offering;

and my servant Job [shall/will] [pray/intercede] for you: for [him will I accept/I will accept his prayer]:

[lest I/So that I may not] deal with you after your folly,

[in that/because] ye have not spoken of me [the thing which/what] is right,

[like/as] my servant Job [has…].

So, Job had been on the short end of things for a while now. These three men have been pompously accusing him of secret sin. And Job had been pretty much defenseless against them.

But now the tables have turned. And God fully recognizes in the sight of these three accusers, that Job is his – what? It’s stated three times in this verse. Job is God’s… servant. There was some doubt about that. But not anymore. God makes it clear that Job is his true servant.

And so, these men are at Job’s mercy now. They’re sacrificing – not to Job – but to God. And yet, Job is their priest and mediator before God.

And if they don’t offer that sacrifice and if Job doesn’t pray for them, God menacingly threatens that he will deal with these men according to their foolishness. These men, who had considered themselves as wise! God says that they’re fools!

And God repeats the charge against them. They spoke of God what was not correct.

Job 42 Summary | The Friends Sacrifice and Job Prays and God Accepts

And you better believe that these three men – as foolish as they had behaved themselves – they do fear God and they’re going to make a bee-line to Job with those sacrifices in verse 9!

9 So Eliphaz the Temanite and Bildad the Shuhite and Zophar the Naamathite went, and did [according/just] as the LORD [commanded/told] them:

[the LORD also/and the LORD] [accepted/had respect for/accepted the prayer of] Job.

And where Job had felt such a lack of God’s presence – such a rejection of his prayers – now the only one whose prayers are effectual before God is this one who has felt so rejected by God. Job is no longer rejected.

Job 42 Summary | The Lord Restores Job in Summary

And that applies to his prayers, but we’re going to see from the rest of this chapter that everything is restored to Job. He’s going to experience acceptance by God in every way. Verse 10 summarizes this role reversal.

10 ¶ [And/So] the LORD [turned the captivity of Job/restored the fortunes of Job/restored what Job had lost/made Job prosperous again],

[when/after] he prayed for his friends:

So, God did wait until Job showed that he had truly forgiven these men. And sometimes that is what is holding back some of God’s blessings in our lives is when we refuse to forgive those who have wronged us in some pretty serious ways. And yet, God wants us to forgive everyone – just like he’s forgiven us…

[also/and] the LORD [gave Job twice as much as he had before/increased all that Job had twofold/doubled all that had belonged to Job/gave him twice as much as he had before].

So, that’s Job’s restoration in a summary fashion.

Job 42 Summary | The Lord Restores Job’s Relationships

Now, we’re going to see Job’s restoration in detail with some specifics.

Verse 11 has Job’s relationships restored.

11 Then came there unto him
all his brethren,
and all his sisters,
and all they that had [been of his acquaintance/had known him] before,
and [did eat bread/they dined/ate] with him in his house:

and they [bemoaned/consoled/comforted] him, and [comforted/consoled] him [over/for] all the [evil/adversities/trouble] that the LORD had brought upon him:

every man also gave him a piece of [money/silver], and every one [an earring of gold/a gold ring].

So, one thing to note here is that all of these people had apparently abandoned Job. What help these folks could have been to the suffering Job in his hour of need! And yet, isn’t that sometimes what God orchestrates in our lives so that we don’t trust man – so that we don’t rely on man for our happiness. Sometimes, the Lord brings us to the point where we have literally no one. And the ones we might have are no help.

And that’s OK. It’s as God intends. We don’t have recorded here that Job was bitter against these fair-weather friends and family. He has heard and seen God – experienced God. And I think that he wouldn’t trade that experience for anything. His heart is like that of Joseph’s where he could harbor no bitterness against his brothers but instead saw that where they meant evil, God meant good – and God won!

And I think we need to notice one more thing in this verse. Who brought the evil on Job?

The inspired author of this book places the blame for all the bad stuff that happened on God. This is not Eliphaz saying this. It isn’t even Elihu. It’s the divine author stating in no uncertain terms that God himself brought this evil on Job. God is not apologizing about it. He’s not seeking to shift blame to Satan. He’s not concerned that his reputation will take a hit when people realize that he himself is the one who brings evil – calamity – hardship into the life of one of his righteous people.

I started out this series over a year ago in part because I had a friend whose two young children died in a car accident. And I was talking to one of my sons recently who was a friend of the older boy and we were talking about grief. And my son asked if grief is supposed to go away. And I said that I don’t think you ever get over the death of someone who you love and care for. And he seemed relieved – because even he is still after over a year grieving the loss of his friend.

Now, I want to be clear that I think the first thing that I would say to this grieving father would not be along the lines of this truth – that the Lord made this happen. And certainly you would never relate this to a person in a cold and callous way with no emotion in your voice or face. This is not some truth to beat grieving people to death with.

But it is a truth that we all need to recognize. God is in control. He brings good and he brings bad in this life. And it doesn’t matter who you are.

Can we accept that God ultimately brought the evil into the life of this missionary family in Cameroon? Can we accept that there’s a little 6 year old boy in Minnesota who just had to have a large tumor removed from his brain and still has cancer in his spine and might be enduring harsh treatments for months – and even then he’s not fully out of the woods – can we accept that this is God’s doing?

And I can admit, I don’t want to accept it! I don’t like this. I want the Millennium – now! I want all tears wiped away from our eyes! I want the lion to lay down with the lamb – now!

But we don’t have that now. We have what God has wisely orchestrated in our lives. And as blind and shortsighted as we are – we must trust our captain. We must trust God’s wisdom.

And in fact, you talk to the wife of this murdered missionary or you talk to the believing parents of this dear young child – and you’ll hear them speak of their trusting the Lord. You’ll hear of them being confused and not being able to make sense of things – but you’ll also hear their unwavering faith. And they are an awesome example of what God is teaching us in this book.

And you know – all of these things will be made right one day when we’re with the Lord.

Job 42 Summary | The Lord Restores Job’s Fortunes

But God saw fit to restore Job in this life – even his fortunes in verse 12.

12 So the LORD blessed the [latter end/latter days/second part/latter part] of [Job/Job’s life] more than [his beginning/the first]:

for he had fourteen thousand sheep,
and six thousand camels,
and a thousand yoke of oxen,
and a thousand [she asses/female donkeys].

And I’ll just note here that all the way back in chapter 1 and verse 3 we’re told that Job had these kinds of things as well. Only there, he had half as much. God blessed him with twice as much material blessings – just like he said in verse 10. And these blessings didn’t come because Job stopped sinning and started praying. They came simply because God is gracious.

This is his posture toward his people. He wants to give us good things. And most of those good things are reserved for us in heaven. And yet even on earth he gives us so much to be thankful for.

Job 42 Summary | The Lord Restores Job’s Heirs

And the restoration continues in verse 13 where the Lord gives Job more children.

13 He had also seven sons and three daughters.

And Charlie Hatchett once told me of a really interesting encounter. I can’t remember who the two people were – I think one of them was Dr. Cedarholm who founded Maranatha Baptist University. Dr. Cedarholm paid a visit to a pastor who was struggling with how God was working in his life. And this pastor had found himself in the book of Job and got to this point. And the pastor noticed with some dismay that even though God blessed double all that Job had materially – he only gave him back the number of children that he previously had – 10, not 20. But God said in verse 10 that he gave Job double all that he had before. And so this pastor was really distraught about this seeming oversight by God.

And Dr. Cedarholm came to him and this pastor related that struggle to him. And Cedarholm reminded this pastor that God did indeed restore double to Job even in the area of his children. His previous 7 sons and 3 daughters… were with the Lord. And because of that, they’re just as alive as Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are. And he would see them again. Job did indeed receive double in the area of children.

Job 42 Summary | Special Attention to the Daughters: Names

And interestingly enough, the Lord draws great attention to Job’s daughters in the next few verses.

In verse 14 he focuses on their names.

14 And he called the name of the first, Jemima [dove…];
and the name of the second, Kezia [cassia…];
and the name of the third, Kerenhappuch [horn of eye-paint…].

By the way, as you know, women often go unnamed in the Old Testament. And so the fact that these daughters of Job are named I think is significant.

So, I feel compelled to try to tie these names to some sort of meaning. So, here’s a try.

Doves are graceful. Think of the difference between a dove and a crow. Even though doves tend to flit around whereas a crow is a bit more confident, the flight of doves is more graceful than that of a crow or other birds.

Or perhaps the reference to a dove speaks of a beautiful voice. Doves can have very pleasant songs that they sing.

Cassia smells nice. It’s the bark of a tree that is burned and gives off a really nice scent. This in the days before air fresheners and potpourri and artificial stuff like that.

And then cosmetics applied around the eyes enhances one’s beauty.

So, gracefulness or a sweet voice – pleasant scent – and physical beauty. We’re led to think that these attributes characterized Job’s second three daughters.

Job 42 Summary | Special Attention to the Daughters: Beauty

And while what we just considered bears implicit testimony to the physical beauty and charm of these ladies, verse 15 makes this very explicit.

15 And in all the land were no women found [so fair/as beautiful] as the daughters of Job:

Job 42 Summary | Special Attention to the Daughters: Inheritance

And what’s really unusual is the next fact we hear about them. These girls were so special that they received an inheritance just like their brothers.

and their father [gave/granted] them [an…] inheritance [among/alongside/along with] their [brethren/brothers].

So, typically in the ancient near east, the boys got the inheritance. The girls would get whatever inheritance was left to the man that they ended up marrying.

But I think the idea here is twofold. First, that God gave Job some very exceptional daughters. And second, that God gave Job so much that he had an abundance to give to even his daughters. There wasn’t any scarcity in Job’s latter life.

Job 42 Summary | The Lord Allows Job to Know His Heirs

So, next we hear a summary of Job’s long life in verse 16.

16 After this lived Job an hundred and forty years, and saw his [sons/children], and [his sons’ sons/their children], [even four generations/to the fourth generation].

I’m guessing then based on the twofold arithmetic that we’ve experienced so far that Job lived 70 years before his trial. Because 70 x 2 = 140, which is how long Job lived after his trial of suffering.

So, he lives 140 of his 210 years on this earth after his suffering.

Job 42 Summary | Job Dies Happy

And then Job dies. And he dies a happy man.

17 [So/And/And so] Job died, being old and full of days.

And death is always sad. And yet, there are certain deaths – maybe you’ve been to certain funerals where you just feel like the deceased lived a really good and long and pleasant life. Like, yes we’re very sad that this person is no longer with us. And yet, what a life he or she lived!

And that’s how Job dies. He lived a full, blessed, happy life.

And it wasn’t just because of the stuff that God gave. It’s because Job had heard and seen the Lord. And in light of that encounter and all that led up to that moment with his sufferings and trials – Job had come to understand how to correctly value the stuff that God gave him in this life.

Did Job understand God’s ways? No! He still didn’t. But Job had come to learn to trust God’s wisdom. God saw fit to bless him in his latter years. But I think that even if Job hadn’t been materially blessed in this life, he still would have carried that lesson with him of trusting the Lord in everything.

So, may the Lord help us to trust him in good times and in bad. When we feel like everything’s going for us and when we feel like just to get through the day is an uphill battle. In everything, God is wise. And he’s trustworthy. May the Lord help us to trust him.